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Formerly Principal of the Chrestomathic Institution^and Authwof " A Translatiao 
of Jacobs' Greek Reader;" of "A New Literal TraGstatidh T>f Longinus on* 
the 8ublime ;" of " The Little Garden of Roseennd Vrfflep of Lilies," ' ' 
from the original Latin of Thomas a Kempis, &c, &c. 


Scandere qui needs, yersiculos laceras.— Claudia*. 



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Ester-ieu, according to Act of CongreflSj in the year 1347] 


In the Clerk** Office of the District Court of the United Slates 

for the Southern District Df New York. 



3lfl* aTittrr, HKW TOKK 

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Among the most highly polished nations, whether of ancient or 
of modern times, a knowledge of Latin Prosody has ever been re- 
garded as a qualification, indispensable to every one claiming the 
reputation of a classical scholar. And, considering the intimate 
connexion subsisting between the knowledge of a learned language, 
— particularly of one so marvellously metrical as the Latin, — and 
that of its Prosody, this cannot seem strange : because without 
the latter, the former is, in some degree, unattainable, or at least 

With the single exception of the Greek, probably no language 
in the world can boast a versification, approximating that of tne 
stately Roman. In beauty, sweetness, and melody, it is unrivalled : 
— in the admirably arrangement of its vowels and consonants, it is 
the perfection of art: — wnile the harmonious and ever varying re- 
currence of long and short syllables (in strict accordance with the 
nicest principles of music), has rendered Latin verse, for more than 
two thousand years, the purest standard of rhythmical and poetic 
excellence. To the most casual observer, then, it must be evident, 
th\t a knowledge of the Prosody regulating the accentuation as 
well as the pronunciation of this rich, majestic, and mellifluous 
tongue, is, with the classical scholar, not merely a matter of choice 
but of necessity. 

No one certainly can pretend to fully understand a language 
which he cannot correctly read : but no one can read the sonorous 
and musical language of ancient Rome, without a thorough ac- 
quaintance with its Prosody; it thence follows that a knowledge 
of the latter is indispensable to a proper understanding of the for- 
mer: yet how many are found among those calling themselves 
classical scholars, who can scarcely read a page in Virgil or Ho- 
race, much less of Homer, without perpetrating as many Prosodial 
blunders as there are lines—yea words — in the p*ge! Why is 
this? Why of all countries in the world, should the United States, 
with the reputation of possessing the greatest number of colleges in 

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proportion to the population, suffer the imputation of producing 
the worst Prosodiansl Because in the United States, of ail coun- 
tries of the world, the Prosody of the learned languages has not 
received the attention which its importance demanded, orthe more 
finished classical studies of other countries required of either pro- 
fessors or students. Another cause consequent on this — the gene- 
ral incompetence of teachers to impart a proper knowledge of its 
rules or their application, has probably proved more injurious to 
this branch of classical literature, than any other;— in numberless 
instances amounting to' its partial neglect or even total desuetude: 
for men too often affect to despise or undervalue what they can- 
not appreciate or do not understand. From these and various other 
causes,* not forgetting that too operative, utilitarian, cui bono prin- 
ciple, which bears so powerful a sway over all studies and pursuits 
on this side of tbe Atlantic, the cultivation of this elegant acquire- 
ment has never received a due share of encouragement in the Uni- 
ted States. 

With the exception of two treatises by Professor Anthon, there 
has been no work deserving of the name, published in this country. 
One of these, however, was little more than a republication of the 
well known work written in Latin by the learned Jesuit Alvarez ; 
with a translation of tbe rules and some few trifling corrections, and 
improvements: the other recently published, if not a more useful is 
a far more elaborate production ; every way creditable to Professor 
Anthon's high reputation as a profound scholar and an accom- 
plished Prosodian. 

But to the compiler as well as to many other classical teachers, 
this latter, although a work of great merit and laborious research, 
has always appeared defective in two great essentials; viz., com- 
prehensive brevity and educational permanency, both in its details 
and mode of teaching. First, in " comprehensive brevity" — a quali- 
ty indispensable to all elementary works — the rules and examples 
are divided, broken up, and scattered into portions so far apart, that 
before the pupil has arrived at the end of the rule and examples, the 
commencement is not un frequently forgotten : 2nd, in "educational 
permanency" — a quality of paramount necessity to the pupil, — the 
mode adopted of giving the rules in English only, and in isolated 
paragraphs or sentences, often too loosely paraphrased — is not cal- 
culated to leave a permanent impression on the memory: which re-, 
quires the objects presented for its retention, in a form more tangi- 
ble as well as more impressible. 

Here the superiority of Latin Rules is manifest, — presenting 
within the shortest space, in regular Hexameter verse, and in form, 
calculated to leave an indelible impression on the mind of the Learner 

* Enumerated in the course of the work. 

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«r*aH that if requisite for the clear understanding of each rale and 
ita various exceptions. 

To attempt in any other way to teach Latin Prosody soundly, 
and with a view to permanent retention, must, in the vast majority 
of cases, ever prove abortive: and in the course of the compilers 
experience, for more than twenty years as a teacher of classics, as 
well iu Europe as in America, he has never met a good Prosodian, 
who had not been taught in this manner — by rules brief but com- 
prehensive, written in Latin Hexameter verse, with (or without) a 
translation in the vernacular. 

In the compilation of the present work, the author has taken care 
to adapt it to either method— that of teaching Latin Prosody by 
Latin rules only or by English: whereas the translation appended 
to each rule will suit the purpose of those who may prefer the lat- 
ter; so that the advocates of either can adopt that of his choice, or, 
following the crede-experto advice of the compiler, make use of both 

The plan of the work is, nevertheless, different from any hitherto* 
published ; and, as it is believed, an improvement on all preceding 
compilations, whether in Europe or in America. Wishing to ren- 
der it As easy and as intelligible as possible to the tender capacity of 
youth, as well as to raise it by regular gradation to the capacity and 
comprehension of the more advanced, the compiler has, — after giving 
each rule in Latin Hexameter verse, followed in a sufficiently lite- 
ral translation,— 1st, exemplified not only the rule, but its various 
exceptions and observations by single words only, without at this 
stage embarrassing the student by examples in Hexameter or any 
other kind of verse ; 2ndly, he has given Promiscuous Examples — 
still by single words — for exercising the learner in the rule under 
consideration as well as on all the preceding rules without antici- 
pating any subsequent; 3rdly, he has, for each rule, exception and 
observation, given Examples in Composition, or in combination of 
feet — Hexameter* throughout (save in two or three unavoidable in- 
stances); and 4th !y, after the pupil will have, in this manner, gone 
through not only the' Rules of Quantity, but the Figures of Proso- 
dy, and the sections treating of Metre, Versification, and the Differ- 
ent Kinds of Verse, the compiler has given at the end a Supplement 
or Recapitulation, containing Examples of all the Rules of Quan- 
tity, Figures of Prosody, and Different Kinds of Verse, requisite to 
test the pupil's progress at the conclusion of the work. 

In the text, little has been admitted not pertinent to the rule un- 
der consideration ; in order that the student having nothing to un- 
settle his eye or distract his attention, may afterwards more profit- 

* Any other species, until the pupil had read and studied the sections on 
Metre, Versification, and Different Kinds of Verse, being deemed anticipatory 
and irrelevant. 

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ably peruse the illustrations, derivations, or remarks thrown into 
the nntes in the margin, py the time the pupil has gone regularly 
through this w or k t if carefully directed by a judicious teacher it 
may with all confidence be asserted that lie will have acquired a 
better, more extended, and enduring knowledge of the subject than 
by any other compilation extant. And in order thnt thin little trea- 
tise, may T in every point of view, be regarded as complete, Stir- 
ling's excellent System of Rhetoric has been ap|*ent!ed ; leaving 
nothing to be desired in the formation of the pcrfwtt Prosodian* 

The object of the, compiler has heen to collect within the shortest 
space, what his own experience bad long felt to be a desideratum— 
A Compendious hut Complete System t>f Latin Prosody; embracing 
all that is necessary to impart a correct knowledge of this ejeganl 
branch of classical study ;— in one word, to constitnte the easiest, 
the best, the most concise, and yet ilic most comprehensive Latin Proso- 
dy ever published. 

How fki he has succeeded, remains with the public voice to d&* 

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The sale of one large Edition and the urgent demand for an- 
other, in little more than twelve months, may be regarded as 
ample criteria not only of the popularity of the work itself but 
also of the growing taste of the public mind for a more accurate 
cultivation of Classical studies. 

In order to render it still further deserving of a patronage 
rarely awarded in this or indeed in any country to a work of the 
kind, the volume has been carefully revised and corrected through- 
out; — many false quantities, which had escaped observation in 
the first edition, have been rectified, and some useful additions in- 

By the experienced Teacher, the elegant Scholar, and the 
curious Student, these improvements will, it is presumed, be duly 
appreciated. . 

To the Heads of Colleges, Schools, and Academies, by whom 
his Complete System of Latin Prosody has been introduced and 
adopted in their respective Institutions; the Author tenders his 
thanks, and hopes that the care manifested in the preparation of 
this second Edition, — now stereotyped, will be received as a proof 
of no illaudable anxiety to deserve a continuance of a patronage 
already so liberally extended. 


New York : November, 1846. 

f^T A Second Part on Latin Versification, comprehending a 
plain and easy method of constructing Latin Hexameters, Penta- 
menters, Iambics, and other kinds of verse, is in course of pre- 
paration. A copious Index to both First and Second Parts will be 
given at the conclusion. 

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Prosody* is that part of grammar, which treats of 
—1st. Accent; 2d. The Length or Quantity of Syllables, 
3d. The correct Pronunciation of Words : 4th. The dif- 
ferent species of Verse ; and 5th. The Rules of Metrical 

Letters are divided into vowels and consonants. The 
vowels are six: A, E, I, O, U, Y. From these are 
formed nine diphthongs : M, AI, AU, EI, EU, (E, YI, 
01, UI ; as in Prcemium, Maia, Aurum, Hei, Europa, 
Poena, Harpyia, Troia, Quis. Some of these, however,, 
are not, strictly speaking, proper diphthongs. 

Consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels. 
The mutes are eight: B, C, D, G, K, P, Q, T. The semi- 
vowels are likewise eight : F, L, M, N, R, S, X, Z. Of 
these semivowels, four, viz. L, M, N, R, are called liquids, 
because they easily flow into, or, as it were, liquify with, 
other letters! or sounds. F before the liquids L and R 
has the force of a mute. Two of the semivowels are 
also called double letters, X and Z : the X being equiva- 
lent to CS, GS, or KS ; and Z having the force of DS or 
SD. The letter H is not regarded in prosody as a letter 
or consonant, but as a mere aspirate or breathing. The 
letters I or J, and U or V placed before vowels, are 
regarded as consonants : as, Janua, Jocus, Vita, Vultus. 

•From two Greeks words *pdV, "according to," and u>Sfj, "song or mel- 

f With the mutes, for instanoe, when preoeding them in the same s yllabto. 

2 " ACCENT. 

U generally loses its force after Q, and sometimes 
after G and S ; as Aqua, Lingua, S?iadeo : — being, in 
some measure, absorbed by, or liquified into, the letter 
preceding. It sometimes, however, retains its force ; as, 



Accents in Latin were little marks placed over words 
to direct or distinguish the tone or inflection of the voice 
in pronunciation. During the flourishing state of the 
language, these tones or inflections were not marked in 
books ; because the Romans, to whom usage and practice 
had made them at once both natural and familiar, did not 
require the aid of any such accentual guidance to the 
proper enunciation of their native tongue \-Exempla 
eorum tradi scripto non possunt-r-s&ys Quintilian. They 
were invented in after times to fix the pronunciation and 
render its acquisition easy to foreigners. 
. Of these accents there were three; viz., the acute, 
marked thus ('), — the grave, thus (") — and the circumflex, 
thus ( A ) ; being the junction of the other two. The acute 
was also called &Q<rtQ f because it elevates the syllable, as, 
dominus ; the grave — which is in reality the absence or 
privation of accent — is called &eotg, because it sinks or 
depresses the syllable ; as doctl ;t while the circumflex 
both elevates and depresses it : as, amdre. 

These accents being invented solely to mark the tone, 
elevation or depression of the voice, were not regarded 
as signs of the quantity of syllables whether long or 
short. . In modern typography they have — an occasional 

* From accentvm, wh. fir. accino, " I," or " in concert with." -• 

. * The last syllable of Latin words (in dissyllables, See.,) never admits the 
acute or circumflex, nnless for the sake of distinction between words similar in 
orthography but different in meaning ; as erst, " on account of," to distinguish, 
it from ergo, " therefore ;" or pone, " behind," from pone, the imperative moo* 
atpono. The grave is however supposed to be placed oyer the last syllable of 
all words, dissyllables, &c., not thus excepted. 


use of the circumflex excepted — been long generally- 
omitted ; yet as the reading or the recitation of the Latin 
language is, (or at least ought to be,) in some degree, 
regulated by their influence whether marked or not, it 
it has been considered necessary to give a few short rules 
for their application. 


1. If long by nature, are always supposed to have a 
circumflex; as, flos, spes, 6s (oris), a, i : — if short by 
nature or long by position, they are considered to have 
an acute ; as, vir, 6s, (ossis,) fdx, mins. 


2. Having the first syllable long by nature and the 
second short, have the circumflex on the first ; as, Roma, 
floris, lima r — but if the first syllable is short by nature 
or long by position, it takes the acute; as, homo, p&rens, 


3. With the penultimate long and the ultimate short, 
require a circumflex on the former ; as, Romdnus, Impe- 
rfaor, Justinidnus. If both penultimate and ultimate 
be long, the penultimate takes the acute ; as, parintes, 
amavSrunt ; — if the penultimate be short, then the 
antepenultimate* has the acute; as, dominus, h6mines, 

Exception. "V^ords compounded with enclitics, such 

* No mark or accent in Latin can be placed farther back than the antepenul- 
timate: because if three, four, or more syllables were to follow the accent.— 
a%, perfUeremns, Cdnstantinopolis — they would come so huddled or confusedly 
heaped on one another, as to be undistinguishable in cadence, by the ear : which, 
as Cicero remarks, cannot well determine the accent unless by the last three 

SUables of a word, in the same way as it determines the harmony of a period, bj 
t last tpree words in the sentence. 


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as the particles, que, Tie, ve, and some prepositions, a» 
cum, most commonly throw the accent on the last sylla- 
ble preceding the adjunct particle or preposition ; as* 
&mat, — when followed by an enclitic — becomes amdtque r 
so also, lachrym&nsve, probitne ; n6bis becomes nobiscum, 
quibuscum, &c. 

Observation. It may, nevertheless, admit of some 
doubt, if this exception can hold good, unless where the 
penultimate is long ; for instance in this line from Ovid — 

PrSnaque cum spectent animalia ccetera terram — 

the accent must fall on the first, not on the last, syllable 
of Prona, contrary to the commonly received opinion on 
the power of the enclitics to attract the accent. Various 
similar examples abound in the classics. 

The foregoing are the only rules for accentuation, as 
laid down by the old Roman grammarians, that have 
reached our times, and which can, with any regard to 
classical accuracy or elegance, be safely recommended 
to the attention of the student. As to the barbarous 
practice of attempting to anglicise the venerable and 
majestic languages of Greece and Rome, by reading 
them according to the laws and principles of modern 
English accent, it is so absurd in the inception, so sab* 
versive of all beauty, melody, and accuracy in recitation 
of the classic authors, and so utterly destructive of all 
distinction between accent and quantity, as to deserve 
universal reprobation. 



Quantity is distinct from accent though not inconsistent 
with it. The former denotes the period of time occupied 
in pronouncing a syllable ; the latter is used to signify a 

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peculiar tone, as abore described, by which one syllable 
in a word is distinguished from the rest. The one is 
length or continuance, whether long or short, the other 
isr elevation or depression of sound, or both.* % 

The length or quantity of a syllable then is the dura- 
tion of time occupied in pronouncing it. A syllable is 
either short, long, or common. The length or quantity of 
syllables is marked, as in the word dmaoo ; of which 
the first syllable is short, the second long, and the third 
common. A short syllable is pronounced rapidly; as, 
concido, legere. A long syllable is pronounced slowly ; as, 
conctdo, sedare. Hence, in the language of prosodians, 
a short syllable is said to have one time and a long sylla- 
ble, two times. A common or doubtful syllable is that 

* In the great majority of the Classical Institutions throughout the United 
States, it is to be regretted, that the practice of reading the ,aucient authors 
according to accent alone — not, however, the accent of thel^ld Romans, but 
modern English accent I — instead of by quantity, prevails to an extent likely to 
prove injurious to the best interests of elegant literature. What, for instance, 
can be more irreconcilable to classical purity of taste or correctness, than to find 
in some of the most popular Latin grammars of the country, rules laid down in 
which the pupil is gravely instructed to pronounce the i in partetes and mu&eres 
long ! because "it is accented and comes before another vowel! " — and the i in 
fides also long! because "it comes before a single consonant''! and this, 
although he (the pupil) must then, or shortly know, that, in accordance with the 
Very first rule in his prosody, " A Vowel before a Vowel is short." and by another 
rale that " Derivatives must follow the quantity of their Primitives ;" and that in 
the entire Corpus Poetarwn, he will not find a single instance in which the i in 
any of these words is otherwise than short ? Is it then a matter of wonder to 
find so few classical scholars in the United States taught in this preposterous 
manner, who can read a page of Homer or Virgil prosodially ? Their incompe- 
tence is the inevitable result of the perverted mode of teaching adopted ab limine : 
inconsiderately endeavoring to reduce the laws of a dead language which have 
been ascertained and fixed for centuries to those of a living and variable language 
whose very accentuation and pronunciation are yet in a state of transition; 
neither unchangeably fixed nor unalterably ascertained. Instead of rationally 
teaching their pupils to read the exquisitely beautiful and wonderfully metrical 
language of Greece or of Rome agreeably to its own laws and principles, as weU 
of quantity as of accent, most of our cisatlantic Professors endeavor with more 
than Procrustean ingenuity (qu. cruelty T) to stretch or shorten it to the shifting 
standard of their own immature and imperfect vernacular ! Would that these 
gentlemen were more observant of the advice given by the great Roman orator :— 
Atque nt Latine loquamur, non solum videndum est, ut et verba efferamus ea 
quae nemo jure reprehendat ; et ea sio et casibus, et temporibus, et genere, et 
numero oonservemns, ut nequid perturbatum ao discrepans aut prreposterum 
jit : sed etiam lingua, et spiritos. et vocis sonus est ipse moderandus.— De OraL 
lib. iiL 

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which in poetry is sometimes long rod sometimes short j 
as, italus or italus, Papyrus or Papyrus, Vatiemwts o* 
Vatica?ius, &c. 

The quantity of syllables is determined either by es- 
tablished rules or the authority of the poets. The last 
syllable of a word is called the ultimate ; the last but 
one, the penultimate ; the last but two, the antepenulti- 
mate ; and the last but three, the pra-antepenultimate. 


A Vowel before a Vowel. 

Vocalem breviant, alia subeunte, Latini. 
Produc, ni sequitur R, fio, et nomina quints 
Quae geminos casus, E longo, assumunt in -ei, 
Verum E corripiuntyWeique, speique, reique. 
-ius commune est vati, tamen excipe aUus, 
Quod Crasi^tardat ; Pornpei et caetera produc, 
Et primae patrium cum sese solvit in -at ; 
Protrahiturque eheu, sed to variatur et ohe. 
Nomina Graecorum certa sine lege vagantur: 
Multa etenim longis, ceu Dius, Dja, Thalia, 
Quaedam autem brevibus, veluti Symphonia, gaudent ; 
Quaedam etiam variant, veluti Diana, Diana. 

A vowel before another vowel or a diphthong, is short ; 
as. puer, patriae : or before h followed by a vowel ; as, 

Exception 1. A vowel before a vowel is long in all 
the tenses of fio ; as, flebam; unless where the vowel 
is followed by r, (or rather by er) ; as, fierem* 

Excep. 2. The genitives and datives singular of the 
fifth declension make e long fcfefore i; as, diei : except 

* Carey in his translation of the Latin rnle says — "when r follows, the i it 
usually short;— and adduces five decisive examples where it is long; so that it 
may. in some degree, be regarded as common. In no species of Daotylio Terse 
can it be ever found long. 

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the e in spli, rli, ftdU. In the last two words, it is 
sometimes ong ; as, rei^fidii. 

Excep. 3. Genitives in ius have the i long in prose, 
hot common in poetry ; as, unius : the word altering how- 
ever has the % always short ; alius always long — being 
formed by Crasis* from aliius. 

Excep. 4. Proper names, as, Caius, Pompetus, have 
the vowel a or e long before i : the a is also long in the 
old genitives and datives, aulai, terrdi. 

Excep. 5. In ohe and Liana, the vowel in the first 
syllable is common : in eheu and Io [a proper name] it 
is long ; but io the interjection, follows the general rule. 

Excep, 6. In many other words derived from the 
Greek, a vowel though immediately followed by another, 
is long ; as, Orion, aer. 

O* Foreign or barbarous words introduced into the 
Latin language, are not subject to any invariable rule. 
Prudentius lengthens the first a in Baal, while Sedulius 
shortens it. Sidonius lengthens the penultimate vowel 
in Abraham, while Arator shortens it. Christian poet3 
also make the a before e in Israel, Michael, Raphael , &c.* 
&c., sometimes long, and sometimes short. 


On Rule : — Audii'sse, aureae, mihi : — On Exceptions : 
1. fiunt, fierent; 2. speciei, diei ; 3. tot!us, nulKus; 4. 
Vulteius, Grams, pictai ; 5. ohe, eheu ; 6. Clio, chorea.t 


Rule — Conscia mens recti famm mendacia ridet. Ovid. 

Musa, mihi causas memora; quo numine Icbso. Virg. 

Exc. ft Omnia jam f tent, fieri quce posse negabam. Ovid. 

2. Nunc adeo, melior quoniam pars acta diei Virg. 

* Derired from itp&ms (fr. Ktp&<o, or Ktoivvv/iO, "a mingling,"— in grammar— 
* a Heading of two letters into on*." t Too « in chorea & common. 

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Exc. 3. Navibus, infandum! ammis, unites ob Irani. Virg* 
4 Aulax in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Id. 

5. Exercet Diana ckoros* guam mille secutce. Id. 

6. Parspedilncsplauduntchoreasetcarminadicunt. Id. 


Of Diphthongs and Contracted Syllables. 

Omnis diphthongus, contractaque syllaba longa est. 
Prce brevis est, si composiium vocalibus antcit. 

Every diphthong and syllable formed by contraction 
are long; as, durum, cbgo [from co-ago], 

Excep. Prat immediately before a vowel in a com- 
pound word, is generally short j as, prce acutus. 


On Rule : — ^neas, caelum, nemo [from nehemo] : — 
On Excep. Prse-ustus, pne-eunt. 

Promiscuous Examples on this and the preceding Rule. 

Jgneas [2, 1 Gr.], vitae [2], meridiei [1, 1], f lemus [1], 
aonides [Gr. 1.], prselia [2, 1], [1], prae-eo [2], 
spei [1], junior — from juenior, wh. fr. jiiveriior — [2.] 


Rule. En Priamus ! sunt hie etiam sua prcpmia laudi. Vir. 

Bis gravidos cbgunt fatus, duo tempora messis.. Id. 

Ex. Jamquenovi prdeunt fasces , nova purpura fidget. Clau. 

Of Position. 

Vocalis longa est, si consona bina sequatur, 
Aut duplex, aut I vocalibus interjectum. 

A vowel before* two consonants in the same word or 
syllable, is long by position ;* as, terra. The same effect 

* That i*j by being sq equated, although naturally short. 

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is produced by two consonants in different words ; as, per 
me : also when the vowel comes before a double conso- 
nant; [x or z;] as, judex, gaza: or before the letter j ; 
as, major, hujus.* 

Excep. 1. The compounds of jugum have the i short 
before^; as bljugus, quadrijugus* 

Excep. 2. A short vowel at the end of a word, pre- 
ceding another word beginning with x or z, remains 
short; as, litora Xerxes; nemorosa Zacynthos. 

Excep. 3. A short vowel at the end of a word, pre- 
ceding another vowel' beginning with sc, sm % sp t sq, st, 
scr, &c, sometimes remains short, but is generally made 
long ; as, undl sciat ; libera sponte ; scepe stylum — nefaria 
scripta; compter e spatium ; gelida stabula. 

Observation. The letter k not being regarded in 
prosody as a letter, has no influence, either in the begin- 
ning, middle or end of a word, on the preceding short 
vowel ; as, udhuc : — nor at the beginning of a word, does 
it like a consonant, preserve the final vowel of the pre- 
ceding word from elision ; as, Icare haberes — where the 
final e of Icare is' elided. 


On Ride : — Mors, raptum, tendens, at pius ; pax, hori- 
zon — On Excep. Bijugis, jura Zaleucus, Agile studium. 

Promiscuous Examples. — Install rat [3, 2], intonuit [3, 
1], hiijus [3], posiiisse [1, 3], Thalia [Gr. lL_faciei [1], 
erat mini [3, 1], fieri [1], perfidia [3, 1], gaudia [2, 1], 
cxpertum [3, 3]. 

* Not because.; is a double consonant, or indeed in this situation any consonant 
at all, but heoanse joined with the preceding vowel, it constitutes a diphthong, both 
in pronunciation and quantity. Moreover, many words of this formation, which 
were originally written and pronounced in three syllables, as hu-i-vs, coalescing 
into dissyllables, the first syllable became a diphthong. J in any other situation 
is regarded as a consonant, and appears to have been pronounced by the Romans 
JBce y in English. , 

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Rule-*- Sacra mosque tibi commendat Troja penates. Virg. 

Sub juga jam Seres, jam barbarus is$et Araxes. Luc 

Exc. 1. Centum quadrtjugosogtiabo ad Jluminacurrus. Vir. 

2. Jam medio apparet fiuctu nemorosd Zacyntkos. Id. 

3. Scape slylumvertas.iterumqtuedignalegisint. Hor. 
Ferte cififerrum ; date tela ; scandite muros. Vir. 

Obser. Oro, siquis ddhuc precibus locus, exue mentem. Id. 
Partem opere in tanto, sineret doldr Icare* haberes. Id. 


Of the Mute and Liquid, or Weak Position^ 

Si mutam liquidamque simul brevis una praeivet, 
Contrahit orator, variant in carmine vates. 

A short vowel preceding a mute and a liquid— both in 
the following syllable — is common in poetry, but short 
in prose; as, agris and agris; pdtrem and patrem; 
volkcris and volucris. 

Observ. — This rule requires the concurrence of three 
circumstances; viz., 1st, the vowel must oe naturally 
short ; thus because the a in pater is short by nature, 
the a in pitris is common ,t in accordance with the rule ; 
but the a in matris, acris, is always long, being long 
by nature in mater and acer ; — 2d, the mute must pre- 
cede the liquid ; as, pharetra ; because if the liquid 
stand before the mute, the vowel preceding though natu- 
rally short, is always long ; as, fert, fertis; — 3d, both 

* E in Icare is elided. 

t Debilis Positio, as the position formed by a mate and a liquid, is called b$, 

t The lengthening of the vowel In poetry may be rendered more familiar to the 
youthful student, by causing him to pronounce the words in serarate syllables ; 
thus pat-ris, integ-ra, pharit-ram; so that the halt of the roice produced by 
throwing the consonants into different syllables, must be counted into the ttaajt 
of the preceding syllable and will consequently render it long. 

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mute and liquid must belong to the same syllable ; as, 
medio-cris, mulie-bris : because if the mute and liquid 
belong to different syllables, the preceding short vowel 
necessarily becomes long, by position; as, ab4uo, 


On Rule — TenebraB, locuples, tonitrua ; — in poetry. 
On Observation — matres, fertis, artis. 

Promiscuous Examples— Sed dixit [3, 3], respublica [3, 
3], virgineae [3, 1, 2], majot [3], eheu [1, 2], Calliopea [3, 
1, GrJ patris [4], Proteu [2J malo — fr. magis v51o — [2], 
aureum [2,'l], Araxes [3], one [1], praeoptat [2, 3]. 

Note. A short vowel at the end of a word frequently 
remains short, although the next word should begin witn. 
two or three consonants ; as, fastidire : Strabonem. 


Bole — Et primo similis volucri, mox vera volucris. Ovid. 

Natum ante or a patris, patrem qui obtruncat ad aras. Vir. 

Obser. Pars leves kumero pharUras, et peetore summo. Id. 

Dixit, et in sylvam pennis ablata refugit. Id." 

Note. IAnquimus, insani ridentes pramid scrtba. Hor. 


Of Derivative Words. 

Derivata, patris naturam, verba sequuntur. 

Mobilis etfbmes, laterna ac regula, sides, 
Quanquam orta^ brevibus, gaudent producere primam: 
Corripiuntur arista, vddum, sopor atque lucerna, 
Nata licet longis. Usus te plura docebit. 

x Words derived from others usually follow the nature 
OM^uantity of the words, whence they are formed ; as, 


Snimosus from animus, {but dnxmatus fir. anim6 y *] ffcun~ 
dus from fdriy tracundus, from the obsolete verb tre, trdre. 

Excep. 1. Mobility fomes, laterna, regula, and sides 
have their first syllable long, although derived from words 
which have the same syllable short; viz.,moveo,foveo t 
IdteOy rego, and sedeo. 

Excep. 2. jpista, vadum, sopor and lucerna have their 
first syllable short although derived from areo y vado, sopio, 
and luceo in which the first syllable is long. Familiarity 
with the classic writers will furnish more numerous ex- 
amples of these apparent anoqjalies.t 

Note. The entire class of verbs in urio called De- 
sideratives, have the u short, although derived from th* 
future participle in urus, of which the penultima is inva- 
riably long ; as, esurit, ccenaturit, scripturit : but indeed 
the derivative and compound words, that deviate from the 
quantity of their primitives, are too many to be enumerated 
and too unconnected to be reduced into classes. 


On Rule— Libido [fr. libet], licentia [fir. licet], iSge- 
bam [fr. lego], legeram, l^gissem [fr. legi] : — On Excep. 
1. Mobilis [fr. mdveo], sedes [fr. sedeo] : — Excep. 2. 
Vadum [fr. vado], lucerna [fr. luceo] : — On Note. Par- 
turio [urus]. 

Promiscuous Examples. — Finitimus — fr. finis — [5], 
molestus — fr. moles — [5, 3] saliibris — fr. salus, salutis 
[5, 4], genetrix [4, 3], jEai® [2], Eubcea [2], litania [6, 

* The distinction between antmus and anima. although both derived from 
the same Greek origin, should be kept in view by the learner. Sapimus animo; 
fruimur anima ; tine anima, anima eat debilis. 

t Many of these are, however, only apparent anomalies ; perhaps it might be 
said so of all. were we better acquainted with the early state of the Latin lan- 
guage and the forgotten dialects en which it was founded. Thus, instead «f 
saying, that fomes comes from foveo, we should derive it from the miAneJStvm; 
formed by contraction and syncope from ftoltum /-—so also, mobilis should be 
derived not from meveo but from motum ; formed in like manner from mMfmm,l 
and so of others 


lj tr e>imf» [3, 5, 1, 3], coherent [1, 2, 3], curulis — fir, 
cucurri, perf. o/*curro — [5]. 


Rule — Non formosus erat, sed erat facundus, Ulysses. Or. 
Exc 1. Sedibus optatis gemina super arbore sidunt. Virg. 
Exc. 2. Alituumpecudumque genus, sopor otitis Iiabebat. Id, 
Note. Parturiunt monies, nascetur rtdiculus mus. Hor. 


Of Compound Words. 

Legem simplicium retinent composta suorum, 
Vocalem licet aut dipthongum syllaba mutet. 
Dejero corripies cum pejlro et mnuba ; necnon 
Pronuba; fatidicum et socios cum semisopitus 
Queis etiam nihilum, cum cognxtus, agnttus, hseret 
Longam imbeciUus, verbumque ambitus amabit. 

Compound words usually retain the quantity of the 
simple words whence they are formed ; as, perlego, ad" 
menet, consonant have the middle syllable short, agree- 
ably to the quantity of the corresponding syllable of their 
primitives, lego, monet, sonans ; while perlegi, rembtus, 
abl&tus, have the pen ultima long, because it is long in 
legi, mbtus, lotus, whence derived. 
, The quantity of the simple words is generally pre- 
served in the compounds, although the vowels be changed 
in the derivation ; as, concido, occido from cddo ; eligo, 
selxgo from lego ; excido, occido from cado ; attido from 
tado ; obedio from audio, &c., &c. 

Exceptions. Dejero, pejlro, from juro ; innuba, pro- 
*%fiba, from nubo ; fatidlcus, maledtcus, causidxcus, veridt- 
\ms, from dico : semisopitus from sopitus ; nihilum from 
M4 kllum : cognltum, agnttum, from nbtum ; imbecillus 
ihwa bdculus or bdcillum ;* ambitus the participle from 

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ambio has i long, but the substantives ambitus and am- 
bitio make it short* 

Note. Connubium from nubo is generally reckoned 

examples by single wobds. 

Rule. Cohibet [habet], improbus [probus], perjiirus 

Ejus, juris], oblitum [oblino], oblitus [obliviscor], inlquus 
aequus]. Excep. Causidicus, maledicus, [dico], cogni- 
tum [notum], &c., &c. Note. Connubium, [nubo]. 

Promiscuous Examples. Defero — fr. de and fero — [6,6], 
perhibeo — fr. habeo [6], macero— fr. macer — [5], nota — 
fr. notu — [5], cycni [4], terrent [3], praeeunte [2, 1, 3], 
dis, for diis — [2], specie i [1, 1], deal [1, 2]. 

examples in composition. 

Rule. — Malta renascentur, qua jam cectdere; cadentque. 


Quandoquidem data sunt ipsis quoquefata sepulcris. Jur. 

Exc. Et Bellona manet tepronuba; nee face tantum. Virg. 

Note. Connubio jungam stabili, propriamque dicabo. Id. 


Of Preterites of two Syllables. 

Prseterita assumunt prim am dissyllaba longam. 
Sto, do, scindo, fero rapiunt, bibo, findo, priores. 

Preterperfect tenses of two syllables have the first 
syllable long ; as, vinij vldi, v'ici, ftigi, crtvi, Sec. 

* Ambitus should not be derived from ambio but from the supine ambitum; 
while ambitus and ambitio must be formed from the supine ambitum. from the 
obsolete verb amb-eo, ambxtum. In this manner, can the carious student be> 
taught to explain many of the deviations from the rule. 

t Agreeably to the theory of many able writers on Philology, most verbs which 
change the short vowel of the present ten me into long e of the perfect, had origin- 
ally a reduplicating perfect; thus pango [pa$o] in the present, makes pepigt in 
tike perfect ; so also video made tntH'ii, by syncope, vlidi, and by orasis, rndi ; 
fugio, made fufugi, by syncope,/uwg7, and by crasis, fugi ; venio made vhoinL 
by syncope, vietri, and by crasis, veni, &c., Ac. Other verbs having a long vowel 
inthe perfect, underwent a different formation ; thus, rideo made ruiti, by mjwm 
•ope, risi; mitto made mittsi, by syncope, mm, &c., &c. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Exceptions. Steti, dedi^ scidi, [fr. scindo] tuli, bibi 
and/fcft, [fr. findo] have the first syllable short. 

Note. Abscidi from ccbdo has the penultima long ; 
but abscldit fr. scindo has it short. 


Rule. Misi, vidi, jeci. Excep. Steti, tuli, bibi. 

Promiscuous Examples. — Pervicet [3, 7], contulerun* 
[3, 7, 3], dixisti [3, 3], elegia [fr. Gr. s%6/«,— 5, 5, 1], 
fieri [1], spei [1], biberunt [7, 3]. 


Rule. Cur aliquid vidi ? cur noxia lumina ftti ? Ovid. 
Exc. Cui mater media sese tulit obvia sylva. Virg. 
Note. Abscldit nostra multum sors invida laudi. Lucan. 

RULE vm. "* 

Of Preterites doubling the first Syllable. 

Praeteritum geminans primam breviabit utramque ; 
Ut pario, peperi, vetet id nisi consona bina; 
Cado cecidit habet, longa, ceixpedo, secunda. 

Preterperfect tenses doubling their first syllable, make 
both first and second syllable short ; as, peperi, tetigi % 
didtciy cectni, &c, &c. 

Excep. 1. The second syllable frequently becomes 
long by position, the first remaining short according to 
the rule ; as, mdmordi, tetendi, cucurri, &c. 

Excep. 2. Cecidi from cado, and pepedi from pido 
have the second long. 


Rule. Cecini, tStigi, pepuli, cecini. Excep. I. FeTelli, 
cucurri. Excep. 2. Cecidi. 

Promiscuous Examples. Novi [7], dedtsti [7, 3], ab- 
sddit [3, 7], mgjores [3], vlxlsse [3], licuisset [1, 3], 

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stSteram [7], pepuli [8, 8], Arion [Gr. 1], sSdea— fr. 
sedeo— [5J, injicio— fr. jacio— [6, 1]. 


Rule. Tityre, te patuke cecini sub tegmine fagi. Virg. 

Litora, qua cornu pepulit Saturnus equina. Val. Flac. 

Exc. 1. Stella facemducens multa cum luce cucurrit. Vir. 

Exc. 2. Ebrius ac petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit. Jut. 


Of Supines of two Syllables. 

Cuncta supina volunt primam dissyllaba longam. 
At reor et cieo, sero et ire, sinoqae linoque. 
Do, queo, et orta ruo, breviabunt rite priores. 

Supines of two syllables, as well as those parts of the 
verb derived therefrom, have the first syllable long; as, 
visum, motum ; visus, visurus ; mbtus, moturus, &c. 

Excep. 1. Ratum from reor % citum from cieo, satum 
from sero, Hum from eo, sttum from sino, titum* from lino f 
datum from do, quttum from queo, and rutum from ruo — 
[with futum from the obsolete fuo, whence futurus,] have 
the first syllable short. 

Note. Although citum from cieo of the second con- 
jugation has the first syllable short — whence cltus, con- 
citus, excitus, &c. ; — Citum from do of the fourth conju- 
gation, has the first syllable long : whence, also, citus, 
accitus, concitus, &c, &c. Some Prosodians would have 
statum common ; but stdtum or stitum comes from sto or 
sisto of the third conjugation, while statum is of the first. 

examples by single words. 

Rule. Motum, visum, fietum. Excep. Ratum, statum, 
ltum, obrutum, citum [fr. cieo]. 

* OMUus, "smeared," from lino, must be distinguished from oWtftw, "karinf 
forgotten," which comes from obliviscor. « Y 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Note. Citum [fr. cio] cttus, incltus. 

Promiscuous Examples. Atrum — fr. ater — [4], aera 
[1], sapiens [1, 3], laudant [2, 3], sol!us [1], caedo [2], 
pepSrit [8], status [9], jecisti [7, 3] dldit, [7], tutudi [8], 
Iturus [9]. 


Role. Lusum it Macenas, dormitum ego Virgiliusque. 


Nascitur et casus abies vtsura marinos. Virg. 

Exc. 1. Cut datus harebam custos cursusque regebam. Id. 

Note. Altior insurgent et cursu concttus keros. Id. 

Rupta quies populis, stratisque excita juventus. Luc. 

Tunc res immemo placuit stdtura labore. Id. 


Of Polysyllabic Supines. 

Utum producunt polysyllaba quaeque supina. 
-ivi praeterito semper producitur -itum. 
Caetera corripias in -itum quaecunque supina. 

Supines in utum [and also atum and etum] of more 
than two syllables, as well as all parts of the verb de- 
rived therefrom, have the penultima long; as, solutum, 
argutum, indutum ; [amatuin, deletum.] 

Excep. 1. Supines in itum from preterites in ivi are, 
in like manner long ; as, petitum, qucesitum, cujntum. 

Excep. 2. Supines in itum from any other preterites, 
have the penultima short ; as, monitum, taciturn, cubtfum.* 

Note. This exception does not include polysyllabic 
compounds from supines of two syllables : whereas these 
compounds retain the quantity of the supines whence 
they had been formed ; as, obitum from itum, abdxtum fr. 
datum, insitum fr. sdtum, &c. ; except cogmtum and agni- 
turn fr. notum. 

* Recenstiwn usually given as aft exception, may be derived from oensio, 
mtuivi, and not from cenfo, ctnsivi. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Rule. Solutum, indutum, argutum. Ezcep. 1. Audi- 
turn, poll turn, cupitum. Ezcep. 2. Creditum, agnitum, 
cubitum. Note. Conditum, insitum, redditum. 

Promiscuous Examples. Conditum — fr. condio— [3, 
10], conditum — fr. condo — [3, 10], fletus [9], rasit [7], 
dirutum [9], biberunt [7, 3], harentis [2, 3], gaza [3.] 


Kule. Implet et ilia manum, sed parciusfeere minuto. Juv. 

Lumina rara micant, somno vinogue soluti. Virg. 

Exc. 1. Ezilium requiesque mihi, nanfama petita est. Ov. 

JVe male conditum jus apponatur ; ut omnes. Hor. 

Exc. 2. Discite justitiam montti t et non temnere Divos. 

Note. Morte obita, quorum tellus amplectitur ossa. Lucret 


Of Prepositions in Composition. 

Longa a, de,e, se, di prater dirimo atque disertus. 
Sit lie breve, at refert a res producito semper. 
Oorripe Pro Graecum, sed produc rite Latinum. 
Contrabe quae fundus, fugio, neptisque neposque, 
Et festvs, fari, fateor, fanumque crearunt. 
Hisce prbfecto addas, pariterque procella, protervus ; 
At primam variant propago, propina, pro/undo, 
Propulso, prdcurro, propello ; Proserpina junge. , 
Corripe ab, etreliquas, obstet nisi consona bina. 

In compound words, tbe prepositions or particles a, 
de, c, se, di, are long ; as, amitto, deduco, erumpo, siparo % 

Excep. 1. Di in dirimo ana disertus, is short. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Excep. 2. Re is generally short ; as, relinquo, rlfero : 
but re in refert, the impersonal verb [" it concerns 5 '] from 
the substantive res, has the first syllable long. 

Excep. 3. Pro is short in Greek words ; as, Prome- 
theus, Propontis : in Latin words it is usually long ; as, 
procudo, prbcurmts, proveko : except when compounded 
with the words enumerated in the rule ; as, profundus, 
profit gio, proneptis, dec., &c. 

Excep. 4. In the following words the pro is doubtful ; 
Yiz,yprjpago,pr y pino,pr'fundo, &c., as given in the rule. 

Excep. 5. The prepositions ah, ad, in, ob, per, and 
tub, are short in composition before vowels ; as are also 
the final syllables of ante, circum and super ; as, dbeo, 
adero, circumago, super addo, &c, &c. 

Note. Trans in composition frequently drops the last 
two letters, still preserving its proper quantity ; as, trado 

[from transdd] ; trdduco [from %ransduc6\. Ob and ah in 
ike manner, before a consonant — where they should be- 
come long by position— drop the final letter, still retaining 
the short quantity; as, omitto [from obmitto], aperio, 
[from abperio], 


Rule. Amisit, deduxit, divisus. Excep. 1. Dirimo, 
disertus. Excep. 2. Retulit, reditus, reTert (" brings 
back") refert (•' it concerns." Excep. 3. Propontis, prd- 
pheta, prologus : processit, promisit : profundus, procella, 
profectus, prdficiscor. Excep. 4. Propago, propino pro- 
pulso. Excep. 5. Xbesset, adegit, abitus, circumagis; 
admitto, percello. 

Note. Trano, 6mitto. 

Promiscuous Examples. Quantum [2, 10], reditum 
[11,9], ejlciunt [11, 6, l],\atas [9], sustfilerunt [3, 7,3], 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

9D X» B, AND I, IN COMPOSltfolt. 

peregh [11, 7], vetitum [10], dSSsculor [1, 3], datus [9], 
audrit [2, 1J. 


Rule. Jmissos longo socios sermone requirunt. Virg. 

Exc. 1. Cede deo dixitque et prcdia voce diremit. Id. 

2. Quid tamjen hoc refert, si se pro classe Pelasga 

Arma tulisse refert. . . . Ovid. 

3. Qualiter in Scythica religatus rwpe Prometheus, Mart 

Provehimur portu ; terrceque urbesque recedunt. Virg. 

Exc. 4. Sed truncis oU<b melius, propagine vites. Id. 

5. Omnibus umbra locisddero^dabis^improbe.pmnas. Id. 

Note. Pleraque differat, et presens in tempus omittat. Hor. 

rule xn. 

Of A, jE, and J, in compound words. 

Produc a semper composti parte priori, 
Ac simul c, simul i, ferme breviare memento ; 
Nequidquam produc, ntquando, venefica, niquam, 
Nequaquam, nequis sociosque ; videlicet addas. 
Idem masculeum produc, et siquis, ibldem t 
Scilicet et bigee, tibicen y ubique, quadrlgce, 
Blmus, tantfdem, quxdam et composta diei. 
Compositum variabis ubx ; variabis ibidem, 

A in the first part of a compound Latin word,* is long; 
as trado, rnalo, quare, quatenus. E in the first part of 
compounds, is generally short; as, liqucfacio, equidem, 

* In Greek compound*, the a is sometimes long ; as, Neapolis ; And sometimes 
short ; Mj a lip sos : these words, however, belong to the rales of Greek Prosody. 

t In Mala, the a — originally short in makis — becomes long in the oompotuuL 
by synoope and erasis ; thus, Jttteoto, or Jffaoofc, Afotrto, Afafo. ^? 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


todfas, trecenti ;* in like manner, t in the first part of a 
compound, is generally short ; as, ommpotens, causidicus, 
Inceps, siquidem. 

Excep. 1. Nequidquam, 7i£quando, and the other words 
enumerated in the rule, with nequis, nequa, nequid, have 
the € long. Simodius, simestris, sedecim, have the e long. 
Selibra is short in Martial. 

Excep. 2. Idem ( mascul . ) , siquis, ibidem, scilicet, btgce, 
and the other words enumerated, have the i long; as 
also, biduum, triduum, quotidie, and other compounds of 
dies. Ludimagister, lucrifacio, agricultural and a few 
others have the i long. Tibicen has the second syllable 
long, being formed by crasis from Tibiicen; but Tubicen 
is short according to the rule. The first i in nimirum is 
also long: — the second being long from derivation. 

Note. The a in eadem is short, unless it should be 
the ablative case. Although in ubique and ibidem the 
middle syllable is long according to the rule, in vMcunque 
and ulnvis, it is common ; as in the primitive uln. 


On Rule. Quare, traductum, quacunque ; pate* fecit, 
nequeo, valedica ; fatidicus, significo, tubicen. 

Excep. 1. Nequaquam, videlicet, secedo. Excep. 2. 
Scilicet, tantidem, meridies, tibicen. 

Promiscnous Examples. Unigenitus [12, 5, 5], abest 
[11, 3] i gavisum [10], fleturi [9], tetiglsse [8, 8, 3], crevi 
[7], venumdata [3, 6], repiidium — fr. pudor — [5, l],mi- 
grantes [4, 3], rejice [3], ccelum [2], patriae [4, 1, 2]. 


Rule. Quare agite 6 proprios generatim discite cultus. Vir. 
Scepe pelens Hero,juvenis trdnavcrat undas. Ovid. 

* And all compounds from tres or tris ; as. \redecvm, triplex, trlformis, &c. ; 
Vat the i in trigmta and its derivatives trigesimus, trireni, &o.. is long, because 
tngirda is not, properly speaking, a compound word \ ginta being merely a teX- 
Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Credebant hoc grande n&fas, et morte piandunu Jtm 
Dum nimium vano tumef actus nomine gaudes. Mart 
Turn pater ommpotens, rerum cui summa potestas. Vir. 

£xc. 1. Barbara narratus venisse venefica tecum. Ovid. 

Exc. 2. Omnibus idem animus, scelerata excedere terra. Vir. 

Note. Canities eadem est, eadem violentia vultu. Ovid. 

rule xni. 

Of the O, U, and Y, in Composition. 

GrsBcum O-micron, prima cpmposti corripe parte ; 
0-mega produces : ast Y-psilon breviabis. — 
O Latium in variis breviat vel protrahit usus. 
Z/brevia, ut Locuples, Quadruplex : sed Jupiter, atque 
Judex, judicium, primam producere gaudent. 

Compound words of Greek ".origin and terminating the 
first member of the compound with the letter o (omicron), 
have that letter short ; as, bibliopola, Areopagus : — unless 
where it becomes common or long from position ; as, 
chirographus, PMtbxenus. If the first member of the 
compound end with o (omega), the vowel is long in Latin ; 
as, Minbtaurus, geographus. When y terminates the 
first member of the compound, it is generally short ; as, 
Thrasybulus, polypus ; unless rendered common or long 
by position ; as, Polycletus, Polyxena, O in compound 
Latin words, is sometimes long and sometimes short ; as, 
quandbque, nolo, qubque (the ablative) ; quandbquidem, 
ho die y qubque, (the particle). U in similar situations, is 
generally short; as, locuples, trojugena; but Jupiter, 
judex, and judicium, have the u long. 


Rule. Argonauta, Arctophylax ; Hippocrene, Nicdstra- 
tus; geometres,lagopus; alioquin,utrobique; Eurypylus, 
Polydaraus ; Polycletus, Polyxena ; quocirca, quominua*; 

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acrosanctus, duddecim ; quadrupes, centuplex ; judical, 

Promiscuous Examples. Recubans [11, 5, 3J, Deus [1], 
fiet [1], glaciei [1], fecit [7], illius [3, 1], agrestis [4, 3], 
equidem [12], adeo [11, 1], Thessalonica [13,6], prote- 
nus [11], vix [3], praedixit [2, 3], extulit [3, 7], nimirum 
[12, 6], dius [Gr. 1], fusos [9], procella [11, 3], Polydo- 
rus [13], locutus [10], inhumatus [11, 5], idem neut. [12]. 


Rule. Hesperios auxit tantum Cleopatra furores, Lucan. 

Nititur hinc Tal'dus^fratrisque Lebdocus urget. Val. Flac. 

Nam quails quantusque cavo Polyphemus in antro. Virg. 

Indignor quandbque bonus dormitat Homerus. Hor. 

Tottit se arrectum quadrupes, et saucius auras. Virg. 


A noun is said to increase or have an increment, 
when any of its oblique* cases has a syllable more than 
the nominative. If the genitive, — by whose increment 
that of all the othert oblique cases is regulated — has the 
same number of syllables as the nominative, then there 
is no increment ; as, musa, muses ; dominus, domini ; but 
if the number of syllables be greater, then there is an 
increment, which must be the penultimat of the case so 
increasing; os^musarum — [mu-SA-rum], dominorum — 
[domi-NO-rum], where SA and NO are the increments. 

When any case has a syllable more than such increas- 
ing genitive, it is said to have a second increment ; as 
from animal comes ani-MA-lis, with one increment, arid 
from animalis come ani-MA-LI-a, ani-MA-LI-um, ani~ 

* All cases except the nom. and roc. sing., are called oblique cases. 

t Except the ace. sing, of neuters of fifth declension, and of some Greek nouns 
In is: as Paris. &c. 

t The last syllable is never regarded as an increment ; thus, in words of one 
syllable, as rex t (regis,) re, the penultima of the gen. is the increment. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


MA-LLbus with two increments: MA being the first, 
and LI the second, increment. Whether the increment 
of the genitive sing, be long or short, it remains the same 
throughout all the oblique cases ; as, sermonis, sermoni, 
sermonibus, &c, &c.; Ccesdris, Ceesari, Ccesdrum, &c, 
&c. ; except bobus or bubus, which has a long increment, 
although the genitive is short.* Iter, jecur, supellez, 
and compounds of caput are said to have double incre- 
ments; as, itineris, jecinoris, supeUectilis, ancipitis; but 
these genitives come in reality from obsolete nominatives, 
viz., itiner, jecihur, supettectUis, ancipes. 


Increments of the first and second Declension. 

Casibus obliquis vix crescit prima. Secunda 
Corripit incrementa ; tamen producit Iberi. 

The first declension has no increment ; except among 
the poets, in the resolution of <b into ax, as aulai\ pictai, 
where the a is long. In the second declension, the in- 
crement is short ; as pueri> viri, saturi.i 

Excep. Iber and its compound Celtiber have the pen- 
ultima of the genitive long ; as, Iberos, Celtibiri.t 


Rule. Picta'i, aurai; miseri, domini. Excep. Iberi, 


profundus [11, oj, aenisci 

fr. potens — wh. fr. potis] 

* This however cannot be considered an exception, whereas it comes from 
bfolbus or bdwlbus, by syncope BiHobus, and by crasis blbus. 

t These cannot, strictly sneaking, be regarded as increments, whereas they 
oome from the old nominatives pueru$> virus, saturus. 

t These two words are in like manner without any real increment ; for the 

genitive sin. and the nom. plural Iberi are both formed regularly from the nom. 

ein. Iberus. There is another from Iber, Iberos, or Iberis, which belongs to the 

3d declension. Both forms are borrowed from the Greek :— fr?iM>o$, I/?/Jp«v— 

IPVt Ifrjpe* 

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Rule. Mthereum sensum, atque aurai simplicis ignem. 


O pulri ! ne tanta animis assuescite Leila, Id. 

Excep. Quiqueferos movit Sertorius exul Iberos. Lucan. 

RULE xv. 

Increments of the third Declension in A. 

Nominis a crescens, quod flectit tertia, longum est. 

Mascula corripies -al et -ar finita, sirnulque 
Par cum compositis, hepar, cum Hectare, bacchar, 
Cum vdde, mas, et anas, cui junge laremque jubarque. 

The increment of a in nouns of the third declension is 
generally long ; as, pax, pads ; pietas, pietatis ; vectigal, 

Excep. Proper names of the masculine gender ending 
m al and ar (except Car and Nar), have short incre- 
ments; as, Hannibal, Hannibdlis; Ccesar, Ccesaris: so 
also have par [the adjective] and its compounds ; par the 
substantive, the noun sal, and the other words enumerated. 


Rule. Ajacis, setatis, calcaris. Excep. Asdrubalis, 
Amilcaris ; parem, hepatis, nee tare, anatis — fr. anas, " a 

Promiscuous Examples. Larem [15], sale [15],pue*ros 
[1, 14], Hannibalis [3, 15], quadrigsi [12, 2], pietatem 
[1, 15], ubique [12], pronepos [11], sonipes [5-— fr. so- 
nus, 12], circumdata [3, 9]. 


Rule. Jane, fac aternos pdeem pacisque ministros. Ovid. 
Exc. Hanrabalem Fabio ducam spectanteper urbem* Silius. 

Vela dabant Iceti et spumas satis are ruebant. Virg. 

Errantes hederas passim cum baccdre tellus. Id. 

Sulphureas posuit spiramina Naris ad undas. Ennius. 

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Increments from A and AS. 

A quoque et as Graecum, breve postulat incrementum. 
-s quoque finitum cum consona ponitur ante, 
Et dropax, anthrax, Atrax, cum smildce, climax; 
Adde Atdcem, pandcem } colacem, styrdce7nqne t fdcemqxie 9 
Atqut abacem, cor deem, phylacem compostaque, et harpax. 

Greek nouns ending in a and as, have short incre- 
ments ; as, po'ema, poematis ; lampas, lampadis : also 
nouns ending with s preceded by a consonant ; as, Arabs t 
Arobis ; trabs, trains ; besides the following words in 
ax-acis; as, dropax, anthrax ,• Atrax* &c., &c., and the 
compounds of phylax and corax, with harpax t harpagis % 
and the like. 


Rule. Stemmata, lampade, poemate ; Arabum, tr&be, 
dropace, face, pan&cem, &c. 

Promiscuous Examples. Vadibus [15],Pall&dis [3, 16], 
Titanas [15], jub&ris [5, 15], saturos [14], Cymothoe 
[Gr. 13], trecenti [12, 3], procurrit [11, 3], agnitus [3, 
6], mollitum [10]. 


Sule. Undique coUucent prmcincta lampades auro. Ovid. 
Nam modo thvnrilegos Arabas, modo suspicis Indos. Id. 
Non styrdce Lkeofragr antes uncta capiUos. Virg. Cir. 


Increments in E. 

Nominis e crescens numero breviabis utroque : 
Excipe Iber patriosque -em* (sed contrahito Hymen), 

*^Jo«, SvpMcis fawJdtob e oootmoa j out erroneously, &r the ptesage in 

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Ver, mansues, locupUs, hares, mercesque, quiesque, 
Et vervex, lex, rex, et plebs, seps, insuper halec, 
-el peregrinum, -es, -er Grsecum, eetkere et aire demptis. 
His addas Seris, ByzSrisque, et Recimeris. 

The increment e of the third declension is generally 
short in both singular and plural ; as, grex, gregis: pes, 
pedis ; muUer, mulierum ; teres, teretis, &c. 

Excep. Iber, Iberis, and genitives in enis (except 
hymenis) have the pen ultima long ; as, ren, rims, siren, 
sir enis, &c., as also ver, mansues, locuples, and the others 
enumerated. Hebrew nouns in el ; as, Daniel, Danielis, 
and Greek nouns, in es and er; (except eeth&ris and aere 
from (Ether and tier :) as, lebes, lebitis; crater, crateris, 
with Siris, Byzeris, Recimeris — genitives from Ser, By- 
zer, and Recimer — have the increment long. 

IE?" Some foreign names in ec hare the increment long 
by this rule ; as, Melchesidec, Melchesidecis. 


Rule. Operi, pulveris, gregibus. Excep. Iberis, Sire- 
nis, (hymenis) ; veris, mansuetis ; lebetis, trapetis, 'eethe- 
ris) : Michaelia, Seris, Recimeris. 

Promiscuous Examples. Mercedis [3, 17], abacis [16], 
mares [15], Celtiberi [3, 5, 14], testis [5,— fr. tero— 17J, 
pacem [16], tepefecit [5, 12, 7], resides [11], hymenis [17]. 


Rule. Incumbens tereti, Damon, sic caspit, oliva. Virg. 
Exc. Monstra maris Sirtnes erant, qua voce canora. Ovid. 

Crateras magnos statuunt, et vina coronant. Virg. 

Teller aque utfoliis depectant tenuia Seres. Id. 

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Increments in I and Y. 

I aut y crescens numero breviabis utroque ; 
Graca sed in patrio casu -inis et -ynis adoptant ; 
Et lis, glis, Samnis, Dis, gryps, Nesisque, Quirisqae 
Cum ipbice simul, longa incrementa reposcunt. 

The increment of the third declension is usually short ; 
as, lapis, laptdis ; stips, stipis ; pollex, polficis. 

Excep. Genitives in inis and ynis from words of 
Greek origin, have the penultima long ; as, delphin, del- 
phinis ; Phorcyn, Phorcynis ; as also, lis, litis; gli$, 
gliris, and the other words enumerated. 


Rule. Tegmine, sanguinis, ilice. Excep. Sala minis, 
delphinis ; litis, vibice. 

Promiscuous Examples. JJthere [2, 17], chlamydia er 
ydos [18], lebetes [Gr. 17], regibus [17, 18], trabibus [16, 
18], aenigmatis [2, 4, 16], caicare [15], mulleres [1, 17], 
ordinis [3. 18], Quiritis [18]. 


Rule. Tityre, tupatvlce recubans sub tegmine fagi. Virg. 

Exc. Orpheus in silvis, inter delphinas Arion. Id. 

Tradite nostra viris, ignavi, signa, Quirites. Luc. 



Increments from IX and YX. 

Ix atque -yx produc. Histrix cum fornUe, varix ; 
Coxendix, cfiomixque, Cilix, natrixque, calixque ; 
Phryxque, larix, et onyx, pix, marque, salixque,J2ixqixe, 

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Contrahe ; mastxchis his et Eryx, calycisque, et Japyx, 
Conjungas : sandix, Bebryx variare memento. 

Nouns ending in ix or yx most commonly lengthen the 
penultima of the genitive ; as, felix, feKcis, bombyx, 

Excep. 1. Histrix, fornix, varix, and the other words 
enumerated have the increment short : as also appendix, 
wad some proper names ; as, Ambiorix, Vercingetorix, 

Exctfp. 2. Bebryx and sandix have the increment 

Note. Mastix, mastigis, " a whip," has the increment 

EXAMPLES by single words. 

Ride. TJItricem, cervlcem, radicis. ^Excep.l. Coxen- 
dlcem, nivem, pice. Excep. 2. Bebrycis, sandicis. 

Promiscuous Examples. Prospgros p,14],exemplarla 
[3,3,15,1], Claris [2, 15], Xrcades [Or. 3, 15], Cereris 
£17], quietem [1, 17], magnetis [Gr. 4, 17,] capitis [18], 
lite [18,], strigis [19]. 


Rule. ToUite jampridemvictriciatoUite signa. Lucan. 
Ecce coturnices inter sua prcdia vivunt. Ovid. 

Exc. 1. Fecundi calices quern nonfecere disertum ? Hor. 
Exc. 2. Bebrycis et Scytkici procvl inclementia sacra. 

Val. Flac. 
Possesses Baccko sceca Bebrycis in aula. Silius. 
Note. Nunc masttgophoris, oleoque et gymnadis arte. 

RULE xx. 

Increments in O. 
O crescens numero producimus usque priore. 
O parvum in Gr®cis brevia, producito magnum. 

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Ausonius genitivus -oris, quern neutra dedere, 
Corripitur \ propria huic junges, ut Nestor et Hector ; * 
Os, oris, mediosque gradus*extende, sed arbos, 
ITovg composta, lepus, memor, et bos, compos et impos, 
Corripe Cappadocem, Allobrbgem, cum prcecbce et obs, ops: 
Verum produces Cercops, hydropsqae, Cyclopsque. 

In words of Latin origin the increment in o of the 
third declension is, for the most part, long; as, sol, salts ; 
vox, vocis; victor, victoris, and other verbal nouns in or ; 
— in lepor, lep&ris ;* ros, roris, &c, &c. ; statfo, statiwiis, 
and other verbals in io ; — in Cato, Catonis, and other 
Latin proper names in o. 

Excep. 1. Nouns in o or on from the Greek 'w^, pre- 
serve the quantity of the Greek increment. If that incre- 
ment be formed with omicron, it is short ; as, sindon, 
sihdonis ; Agamemnon, Agamemnonis ; — if formed with 
omega, it is long ; as, Simon, [or Simo], Simonis; Plato, 
[or Platon], Platonis, &c. 

Observ. 1. Sidon, Orion, Mgeon, and Britto have 
the increment common ; while Saxo, Seno, and most 
other gentile nouns— or the names of nations and people 
— increase short. 

Excep. 2. Genitives in orist from Latin nouns of the 
neuter gender, have a short increment ; as, marmor, 
marmbris ; corpus, corporis, &c, — with Greek proper 
names in or ; as, Hector, Hectbris ; Nestor, Nestor is, 
&c, and also Latin appellations ; as, rhetor, rhetbris, &c. 

Excep. 3. Os, oris, and adjectives of the comp. de- 
gree, have long increments ; as, melior, melioris ; major, 
majoris, &c. 

Excep. 4. Arbos, compounds of nrig [as tripus, polypus, 

* Lepus— firis "a hare," has the increment short. 

t Ador, odor is of the masculine gen. is common. % 

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CBdipus], lepus, memor, and other words specified, in- 
crease short 

Excep. 5. Cappadox, AUobrox, pracox, and 6ther 
words having a consonant before s in the nominative ; 
as, scobs, inops, Cecrops, Dolops, have the increments 
short. Observ. 2. Cyclops, Cercops, and hydrops have 
long increments. 

examples by single words. 

Rule. Sermonis, timoris, floris, rationis, Ciceronis. 

Excep. 1. JEdon, aedonis, halcyon, halcyonis ; Solon, 
Solonis, agon, agonis. Observ. 1. Ononis, Saxona. 
Excep. 2. Memoris, eboris ; Castoris, rhetdris. Excep. 3. 
Oris, pejoris. Excep. 4. Bovis, Metampodis [fr. Melam- 
pus]. Excep. 5. Cappadocis, inopis. Observ. 2. Cyclo- 
pia, Cercopis. 

Promiscuous Examples. Solem [20], XUobrSges [3, 
4, 20], fornlce [3, 19], hymene [17], plebi [17], vervecem 
p, 17], d6gmata [3, 16], Sirenis [Gr. 17]„ Solona [Or. 
20], robora [20]. 


Rule. Regia soils erat sublimibus alta columnis. Ovid. 
Nee victdris heri tetegit captiva cubile. Virg. 

Ire vet at y cursusque vagus statione moratur. Lucan. 

Exc. 1. Pulsant, et pictis bellantur Amazones armis. Virg. 
Credit, et excludit sanos Helicone poetas. Hor. 

Obserr. 1. Mgm&na suis immania terga lacertis. Ovid. 
Audierat durot laxantem Mgaona nexus. Statius. 

Exc. 2. Gratior etpulchro veniens in corpore virtus. Virg. 
Exc. 3. Componens manibusque mantes, atque dribus &ra. Id. 
Exc. 4. Propter aqua rivum sub ramis arboris alta. 

4 # 

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Exc. 5. Mancipiis locupks, eget mu Cappadocumi rex. 

Ob. 2. Tela reponuntur manibus fabricata Cyclopum. Or- 


U brevia incretnenta feret. — Genitivus in -uris, 
-udis et utis ab <m producitur ; adjice^r,/rwa:, 
Lux, Pollux ; brevia intercusqae, percusque, IAgusqae. 

The increment in u of the third declension is generally 
short ; as, murmur, murmuris ; dux, duels ; turtur, tur- 
turis, &c., &c. 

Excep. 1. Genitives in udis, uris, and utis, from nomi- 
natives in us, have the penultima long; os,palus,paludis ; 
tellus, teUuris ; incus, incudis ; virtus, virtutis, &c. ; with 
fur, Juris ; lux, lucis ; Pollux, PoUucis ; and frugis from 
the obsolete nominative frux. 

Excep. 2. Intercus, pecus, and Ligus have short incre- 


Rule. Crucis, furfure, conjiigis. Excep. 1. Incude, 
furis, salutem. Excep. 2. Intercutis, peciide, Liguris. 

Promiscuous Examples. Vulturis [3, 21],decoris [20], 
salutem [21], nuces [21], nivis [17], vertici [3, 18], call- 
cem [19], Nestora [3, 20], laqueare [1, 15], duodeni [13]. 


Rule. Consule nos, duce nos, ducejam victor -e, caremus. 


Aspice, ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aura. Virg. 

Exc. 1. Vixe conspectu Siculce teUuris in altum. Id. 

Exc. 2. Quid dominif octant, audent cum taliafures. Id. 


The other declensions, like the first declension, have, 
properly speaking, no increment, unless in the plural 

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When the genitive or dative caae plural contains a 
syllable more than the nominative plural, the penultima 
of such genitive or dative, is called the plural increment ; 
as, sa in musarum, bo in amborum and ambobus, bi in 
nubium and nubibus, quo in quorum, qui in quibus, re in 
rerum and rebus, &c. 


Plural Increments in A, E, 1, O, 17. 

Pluralis casus si crescit, protrahit a, e, 
Atque o ; cor ripies i, u ; verum excipe bubus. 

The plural increments in a, c, and o, are long ; as, 
quorum, rerum, horum, dominorum ; the increments in 
i and u are short ; as, quibus, montxbus ; lacubus, verubus, 
— except the u in bubus, 


Rule. Sylvarum, rerum, puero rum ; lapidibus, artu- 
bus : — bubus. 

Promiscuous Examples, Virorum [14, 22], fill arum 
[1, 22], parfe-tibus [1, 17, 22], Araris [15], paribus [15, 
22], vadibus [15, 22], epigrammate [4, 3, 16], Palladis 
[3, Gr. 16], gregibus [17, 22]. 


Rule. Appia, longarum, teritur, regina, vidrum. Statius. 

Arreptaque manu, " Quid agis,dulcissime r^rumV 


At Capys, et quorum melior sententia mentu Virg. 

Vivite felices, quibus est fortuna peracta. Id. 

Exc. Consimili ratione venit bubus quoque scepe, Lucret. 


A verb is said to increase, when any of its tenses has 

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a syllable more in its termination,* than the secoad per- 
son singular of the present tense indicative active, t This 
additional syllable is the^rsf increment — the penultima: 
the final syllable being never called the increment. 
When the increasing part has another syllable added to 
it in the course of formation, the part so formed is the 
second increment, and so of the rest. Thus from amas~- 
the standard or regulator — comes a-ma-trc, with one incre- 
ment ; from amavi comes a-ma-ve-nm, with two incre- 
ments ; from amaveram, comes fl-ma-ve-ra-wro, with 
three ; and in like manner att-di-e-ba-mi-ra* from its 
regular formation with four increments. Any verb not 
exhibiting in any of its tenses or' persons, a greater 
number of syllables than the regulator, is said to have no 
increment ; thus, amai, amant, ama, amem, having no 
more syllables than amas, have no increment. 


Of the Increments of Verbs in A. 
A crescens produc — Do incremento excipe primo. 

In the increments of verbs of every conjugation, the 
vowel a is long ; as, amabam, stares, proper amus, audie- 
bamini, &c. 

Excep. The first increment (only) of the verb do is 
short ; as, damns, dabam, dare : hence also the short 
increment in the compounds circumdamus> circurnddbant, 
venumddbis, venumdare, &c. 

* Without the words "in its termination," the expression would not be either 
sufficiently limited or perspicuous ; because the student might otherwise be 
induced to rank reduplicating verbs among these increments! which would be 

erroneous ; whereas the increment in reduplicating verbs takes plaoe at the 
beginning, by a prefix or argument ; as, eucurri, fctendi, momordi, ke. 

T The second person singular indicative active is the rule or measure, by which 
the increment is regulated. 

OCT" For deponent verbs, we may either suppose an active voice whence to 
procure a standard or regulator to determine the increments : or they can be> 
regulated by other verbs of the same conjugation having an active voice. Thv* 
for the deponent verb gradior, we may either suppose a fictitious active gradi^ 
gradti, or be guided by raptor, which has a real active. 

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-' Obsbr. The second increment of dp, hot being an ex- 
emption, follows the general rule ; as, dabamus, dabatii, 
d&b&mini, &c. 


*" Rule. Amamus, laudabamus, doeueramus. Excep, 
Bfimus, date, ciroumdamus, Observ. Dabamus, dabamini, 

Promiscuous Examples. Chorea [Gr. 1], pronuntlant 
[11, 3, 1, 3], alterius [3, 1], labatur [23], pectore [3, 20], 

f>ri6rem [1, 20], cujus [3], C^clopas [4, 20], sanguine 
3, 18], fatidicum [12, 6], auditus [2, 10]. 


Hule. Et cant&re pares, et respondere parati. Virg. 

Pugnabant armis, qua post fabricdverat usus. Hor. 

Exc. Multa rogant utenda dari, data reddere nolunt. Ov. 

Ob. Nam quod consilium, aut qua jam fortuna iMatur. 



t Increments of Verbs in E. 

E quoque producunt verba increscentia. Verum 
Prima e corripiunt ante r duo tempora ternae ; 
l)\c-bcris atque-^ere, at-rm> producito-r£re. 
Sit brevis e quando-rvm, -rim, -ro, adjuncta sequuntur. 
Corripit interdum steterunt dederuntqae poeta. 

In tbe increments of verbs, e is Jong ; as, amemus, 
amavissetis, docebam, legeris and legere (both fut. pass.), 
jaudiemus, &c. 

Excep. 1. E is short in the first increment of the first 
two tenses (pres. and imperf.) of the third conjugation ; 
&nd also in the future terminations beris and blre ; as, 
mgnoscere, legere, legerem, legerewws ; eelebraberis t cele- 
habere, &c. 

Digitized by VjQOQlC 


Obsbr. 1. But in the second increment when the worn 
terminates in reris or rere, the e is long ; as, diripererii, 
loquereris, proseguerere, &c. 

Obser. 2. Velim, veils, velit, &c., have the e short 

Excep. 2. The vowel e is short before ram, rim, to of 
every conjugation ; as, amaveram, amaveHm, amavero, 
feceram, fecerim, fecero, &c. The persons formed from 
them, retain the same quantity ; as, qpnaveris, amaverit, 
fecerimus,feceritis, &c. N 

Obsbr. 3. The foregoing exception however does not 
apply to those syncopated tenses which have lost the 
syllable ve ; as, fieram, jUrim, JUro ; because in these 
contracted forms, the e retains the quantity of the origi- 
nal form : viz.— -fle(ve)ram, JU(ve)rim, &c. 

Excep. 3 The poets sometimes shorten e before runt, 
m the third pers. plur. of the perf. indie, active; as, 
steterunt, tuterunt, &c., &c. 


Ride. Amemus, doceremus, legeretis. Excep. 1. Le- 
geret, iegere ; amabens, docebere. Observ. 1. Amarens, 
docerere, Observ. 2. Velitis, velint Excep. 2. Amav£- 
rat, docuens, legero. Observ. 3 Flero, fleris. Excep. 
3. Dederunt, terruerunt. 

Promiscuous Examples. Amaveramus [23, 24, 23], di- 
batis [7, 23], legetis [24], doceto [24], datum [9], st6t«- 
runt [7, 24], tulerunt [7, 24], peperat [8], patrizo [4, 3]. 


Rule. Sic equidem ducebam animo, rebarquefuturum. Virg. 
Exc. 1 . Jam Iegere, et qua sitpoteris cognoscere viftus. Id. 
Semper honore meo, semper celebrabere dorm. Id. 
Ob. 1. Jungebam Phry gios , cum turaper ere phones. Claa. 
Ob. 2. Musa, velim memores ; et quo poire natus uterqjte. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


. 2. Fecerat exiguas* jam Sol altissimus umbras. Ov. 
, 3. Implerunt montes ,fierurU Rhodope'ice arces. Virg. 
Sxc. 3. Dx tibi divitias dederunt artemque fruendi. Hor. 

rule xzv. 

Increment of Verbs in L 

Corripit I crescens verbum. Sed deme veUmus, 
Nolimus, simus, quaeque hinc composta dabuntur ; 
-lei prater i turn, praesens quart® -imus, et -ttis. 
«ri conjunctivum possunt variare poetae. 

In the increment of verbs — whether first, second, third, 
or fourth increment — i is generally short ; as, linqutmus, 
amabimus, docebimmi, audiebamini, &c., with venimus, 
reperimus, &c., of the perfect tense. 

Excep. 1. The i is long in velbnus, velitis ; nolimus, 
volitisy nolito ; simus, sltis, &c., with their compounds, 
possimus, adstrtius, prosimus, &c. 

Excep. 2. The penultima of the preterite in ivi of any 
conjugation, is long ; as, petivi, audivi, &c. ; and also the 
first increment of the fourth conjugation, when followed 
by a consonant ; as, audimus, audtrem, audirer, &c, and 
tenimus, comperimus, &c., of the present tense ; with the 
contracted form of the imperfect audibam, and the obso- 
lete audibo ; also found in ibam and ibo from eo ; and in 
quibam and qutbo from queo. 

Excep. 3. In the penultima of the first and second pers. 
plur. of the indicative fut. perf. [or second future] and 
the perfect of the subjunctive, the i is common in poetry: 
— but in prose, it is usually long, 


Arnaviraus, viviraus, iterabitis. Excep. 1. Nollte, no- 
.11 tote, sltis, possitis. Excep. 2. Petivi, qaesi vi ; auditis, 

* When the t is followed immediately by a rowel, it is of coarse short [by the 
- "Kale Vocalem breviant, Jbc,— j ; as, audiunt, audiens, &c. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


audlri ; reperlmus (pres.) ; audi bam, ibo, qulbam. Excep. 
3. Dederltis, dixeritis, contigeritis. 

Promiscuous Examples, Audlveramus J25, 24, 23], 
docuerunt [24, 3], dederant [9, 24], damus [23], initus 
[9], solutus [10], quaesltus 10], netas [12], videlicet [12], 
ambitus [6, exitus [9,] introduco [13], animalis [15]. 


Rule. Victuros agimus semper >necvivimusunquam. Manil. 

Scinditur interea studia in contraria vidgus. Virg. 

Exc. 1. Et documenta damus, qua simus origine nati. Ov. 

2. Cessi, et sublato montem genitore petivi. Virg. 

Alterius sermone meros audiret honores. Hor. 

Tu ne cede malts, sed contra audentior ito. Virg. 

3. Egerimus, nosti; et nimium meminisse necesse est. Id. 

Accepisse simul vitam dederltis in unda. Ovid. 


Increment of Verbs in O and U. 

O incrementum produc ; u corripe semper 
U fit in extremo penultima longa futuro. 

The increment of verbs in o is always long ; — that m 
u is generally short; as,facitote, habetote; sumus, possu- 
mus, qucBsumus. 

Excep. In the penultima of the future participle in rus, 
the u is always long ; as, periturus, facturus, amaturus. 

Note. To the long increment of verbs in o, some Proso- 
dians regard the irregular verb, forem, fore, an exception. 


Rule. Itote, petitote ; malumus, volumus. Excep. Ven- 
tiirus, arsurus. 

Promiscuous Examples. (£7* The most useful mode 
of exercising the pupil in the increments of verbs, is ta 
examine him in all the terminations of the four conjuga- 
tions ;♦ beginning with amdmus. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

FINAL A. * 39 


Sale. Hoc tamen amborum verbis estote rogati. Ovid. 

C unique loqui poterit, ?natrem facitote salutet. Id . 

Nos numerus sumus, etfruges consumere nati. Hot. 

Qui dare certaferee, dare vulnerapossumus kosti. Ov. 

Si patrice tolumus, si nobis vivere chari. Hor. 

Exc. Si periturus obis, et nos rape in omnia tecum. Virg. 
Note. Hincfore ductores revocato a sanguine Teucri. Virg. 


The quantity of final syllables is ascertained, — by posi- 
sition ; as, prudens, precox ; — by containing a diphthong ; 
a*, muses, penws; — or by special rules, as follows : — 


Of Final A. 

A finita dato longis. Itdi posted,, deme, 

JBia, quid et casus omnes : sed protrahe sextum ; 

Cui Grsecos, ex -as primse, conjunge vocandi. 

A final, in words not declined by cases, [that is, in 
verbs and particles] is long; as, ama, memord ;* frustrd, 
prcetered, posted, postUld, ergd, intra, a, &c., with the 
numerals in girtta; as, sexagintd, trigintd, quadraginta, 

Except 1. In itd, quid, eid, posted, — [the a in postea 
being common ;t] — also putd the adverb ; the names of 
letters ; as, alpha, beta ; and hallelujd. 

Excep. 2. In most words declined by cases, the final 

* Ama, memora, &c., have the final a long, because formed by crasis from 
amae, memorae, ae. 

* Man j- eminent Prosodians however insist, that the a in posted*, antea, &c r 
is always long; — and that the syllable ea is in the ablative case sing. fem. ; — 
the prepositions becoming adverbs and the ablatives by their own power express- 
ing a relation' to some other word in the sentence. They add moreover, that 
whenever the syllable appears to be short, it is either in the accusative governed 
hj the preposition, or must be pronounoed in two syllables by crasis. See Classic 
cat Journal for April, 1817, in loco. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

40 • FINAL E. 

a is short ; as, musa, [the nom.] templa, Tydea, lampadk, 
regno. ~ 

Observ. It is also short in Greek vocatives in a, from 
nominatives in es, (changed to a in the Doric or JEolic 
dialect) ; as, Oresta, Atrzda, Mta, Thyestd, Circa, &c. 

Excep. 3. In the ablative sing, of the first declension, 
and in Greek vocatives from nominatives in as; as, prora 
[abl.], pennd [abl.] ; Mnea, Calcha, Pall a, 


Rule. Pugna, interea, contra, triginta. Excep. 1. Efo, 
quia, ita, puti (for videlicet). Excep. 2. Nemora, tristia, 
mea, Hectora. Observ. Oresta, Anchisa, CircS. Excep. 
3. Prora, domina, qua ; -52nea, Lycida. 

Promiscuous Examples. Dominorum [22], diebus [l t 
22], ultra [3, 27], Pollucis [3, 21], tellures [3, 21], velo- 
clbus [20, 22], Immemores [3, 20], Palaem6nis [2, Gr# 
20], boves [20], felicibus [18, 22], Delphlnes [Gr. 3, 181, 
lites [18]. 


Rule. Musa, miki causas memora ; quo numine keso. Virg, 

'Jam tenet Italiam : tamen ultra per gere tendit. Juv. 

Exc. I. Haud ita me experti Bitias et Pandarus in gens. 

Hoc discunt omnes ante Alpha et Beta puellce. Juv. 
Exc. 2. Anchora de prora jacitur ; stant littore puppes. 

Obs. Te tamen, o parvae rector Polydectd Seriphi. Ovid. 
Exc. 3. Prospiciens, summa placidum caput extulit unda. 

Quidmiserum,JEnea,laceras? Jamparcesepulto. Id* 


Of Final E. 
E brevia. — Prima quintsBque vocabula produc ; 
Cete, ohe, Tempi, fermeque , fer eque * /awicque. . 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

FINAL E. 41 

Adde doce siinileinaue modum ; monosyllaba, prater 
Encliticas et syllabicas : beneque et maU demptis, 
Atque inferne^ superne, adVerbia cuncta secundoe. 

Final e is generally short ; as, patre, nate,fuge, legere, 
nempe, iffi, quoque, pene. 

Excep. 1. It is long in all cases of the first and fifth* 
declensions; as, MgU, Thisbe, Melpomene; fide, fame ', 
with re and die and their compounds quarl, hodie, pridii, 
&c., as well as in the contracted genitive and dative, die, 

Excep. 2. The final e is long in contracted words, 
transplanted from the Greek, whether singular ; as, Dio- 
mede, Achille, or in the nominative and accusative neuters 
plural; as, cete, rnell, pelage, tempi — all wanting the 

Excep. 3. Ohe,fermi, and fere, have the e final long. 
Fere is short in Ausonius. 

Excep. 4. Verbs of the second conjugation have e final 
long in the second person singular imperative active ftos, 
doci, gaude, salve, vaUi &c. 

Obsbrv. 1. Cave, vide, and responds are sometimes 
found short. 

Excep. 5. Adverbs formed from adiectives in «*— or 
of the second declension — have the final e long ; as, pla- 
cide, probe, late ; together with all adverbs of the superla- 
tive degree ; as, maximt, minimi, doctissimi. 

Observ. 2. Bene, male, inferne, and superne, with 
mage and impune, have the final e short. Adverbs coming 
from adjectives of the third declension, have the last 
syllable short, agreeably to the general rule ; as, svbliml, 
dadce, difficile, &c. 

Excep. 6< Monosyllables in e; as, ml, te se, and nl, 
(lest or not) are long. 

Obser. 3. The enclitic particles qui, ve, ne, (interroga- 

* In earns of the let declension, beeanse it ts equivalent to the Greek ijj in 
' of the 5th, beeanse it is a contracted syllable. 



42 FINAL £. 

tive) and the syllabic adjuncts, pte, ce, te, de 9 kc. f found 
in suapte, ncstrapte, tute, quamdc, &c., are short These* 
however, might be ranged under the general rule;— never ' 
standing alone. 


Rule. FrangerS, utile, mente. Excep. 1. Alcmene, 
die, requie, hodie. Excep. 2. Pelage, cacoethe, TempS. 
Excep. 3. Ferme, fere, oh£. Excep. 4. Doce, moae, 
vide. Obser. 1. Cave, vide, vale\ Excep. 5. Summe, 
valde, (for valide), sane. Obser, 2. In fern 6, bend, maid; 
dulcS, suave*. Excep. 6. Me\ se, tfi. Obser. 3. QuS, ve, 
tute, hosed. 

Promiscuous Examples. Numine* [5, — fir. nfco> obsol. « 
— "to nod, to approve,"— -wh. fr. »p/»w, — 18, 28], amare 
[23, 28], Hectora [3, 20, 27], opere [17, 28], vectigftl* 
[3, 15, 28], poemata [1, 16, 27], face" [16, 28], merldie 
[12, 1, 28], inhibe [11, 6, 28], Tndigne [3, 3, 28}, pr»- 
cipQe [2, 1, 28], vale [28], cave [28]. 


Rule. Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem. Virg. 
Ante mare et tellus, et quod tegit omnia cesium. Ov. 
Exc. 1. Tros Anchisiade, facilis descensus Averni. Vttg. 
Non venias quart tarn longo tempore Romam. Mart 
Exc. 2. At pelage multa> et late substrata videmus. Lucret , 
Exc. 3. Mobilis et varia est ferme naturd malorum. Juv. 
Exc. 4. Gaude, quojL spectant ocuIJ te mille loqtcentem. Hor. 
Ob. 1. Vade, vale : cave ne titubes, mandataq ; frangas. Id. 
Exc. 5. Excipe sollicitos placid c, mea dona, libellos. Mart 
Ob. 2. Nil bene cum facias \ facias attamen omnia belle. Id. 
Ex. 6. Me me, adsum qui feci; in me convertUefgrrum. Vh> 
Ob. 3. Arma virumque cano } Troj a qui primus ab oris.* Id. 

* This well-known Terse at the opening of the JSneis, affords a striking exem- 
plification of the absurdity inrolred in attempting to read Latin Terse aooording 
to the rales of English accentuation. " Here," sajs one of the ablest adrooatee 



Of Final land Y. 

I produc— Brevia nisi cum quasi, Grocaque cuncta : 

Jure mihl, variare, Zi&tque, n&fque solemus, 

Sed mage corripies tin, uM, dissyllabon et cut; 

Sicuti sed breviant cum sicubi, neculn, vates : 

Adfuerit nisi Crasis, y semper corripiendum est. 

The final i is generally long ; as, domini, patri, Mer- 
curt, met, amarl, audi, i, OvidZ,jiR.* 

Excep. 1. The final vowel is usually short in nisi and 
quasi. In Greek words also, the final i and y are short ; 
as, sinapi, moly — in vocatives of the third declen. ; as, 
Tkett, Part, Dapkm, Tethy, (uncon traded) jr—in the dat. 
sing, of Greek nouns ; as, Pattadi, Thetidi ; — and in da- 
tives and ablatives plur. ; as, heroisi, Troasi, Dryast. 

Observ. In Tethy, the contract, dative for Tetkyi, the 
y is long. 

Excep. 2. In miJii, tibl, stin, and also in tin, uti, and 
utt, the final i is common. Cut when a dissyllable has 
the i common. 

Excep. 3. Neculn, sicubi, and sicuti are said to have the 
final vowel short : — but the i in the two former is common. 


Rule.. Ocull, Mercuri, class!. Fxcep. 1. Nisi, quasi ; 
gummi, meli ; Tethy, Alex! ; Paridi, Thetidi ; Charisi, 


of Che modern system— "here, agreeably to the analogy of the English, every 
judicious reader will pronounce the ■ yllables vi and ca, in the words vtrvm and 
com*, km* >» ! And s ueh in reality if the fact ! ! Now let the Classical student 
observe the consequence of this u judicious " practice : by making these two 
syllables long, the two daetyles with which the line commences, are metamor- 
phosed into as many Amphimaoers j thus— arm*, viritmque, -d! and the Une it 
made to ootfcain 26 instead of 24 times ! ! while the sweetness, melody and ryth- 
mical connection are totally destroyed : a medley of versification never surely 
contemplated by the most elaborate and ornate of the Roman poets. Bnt the 
innovators who would thus barbarously disfiguse the beautiful remains of 

Tradcm proUrvit in mart Creticum 

Portare ventis. 
♦ By crasis from 0c*die,JUi4. 


* Digitized byGOOgk , 

44 FINAL O. 

schemasi, ethesL Observ. Tethy. Excep. 2. MihT, 
tibf, sib! ; ibi, ub!, ut! : cu!. Excep. 3. Necubl, sicubT, 

Promiscuous Examples. Amarylli [3, Gr. 29], lapidi 
[15, 29], tantane [3, 28], hosce [28], fieri [1, 291, qui 
[29], reTque [1, 29, 28], die!, [1, 1, 29], majorl [3, 20, 
29], volucri [4, 29], veni [7, 29], viclsti [7, 4, 29], tullstl 
[7, 3, 29], tetendisti [8, 3, 3, 29]. 


Rule. Quid domint f octant, audent cum taliafures. Virg. 
j, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas. Id. 
Exc. 1. Sic quasi Pythagorce loqueris successor et hares. 


Moly vocant superi : nigra radice tenetur. Ovid. 

Semper Adorn, mei, repetitaque mortis imago. Id. 

Palladl littorem cehhrabat Scyros konorem. Statius. 

Troastn* invideo ; qua si lacrymosa suorum. Ovid. 
Exc. 2. Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur. Vir. 

Non mzki si lingua centum sint, orceque centum. Id. 
Exc. 3. Sicubi magna Jovis antiquo robore quercus. Id. 

RULE xxx. 

Of Final O. 

O datur ambiguis. — Graeca et monosylkba longis. 
Ergo pro causa, ternus sextusque secundae, 
Atque adverbia nomine, vel pronomine nata : 
Immdy modoj et ctio corripias ; varia postremo. 
Serot ideirco, ided, veto, porroque retroqvte. 

O at the end of words is common ;t as, quando, leo P 
dud, Cato, nolo. 


* The n makes no difference in the quantity; being merely added to prevent 
the hiatus, arising from the concurrence of the two vowels : jolt as we say in 
English, "an orange," for " a orange,''— euphonia gratia. 

1 1t is, however, more usually K>n^ than short. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

JINAL O* 45 

/Excep. 1. Greek cases written in the original with « : 
as, Awdrogeb, Clio; monosyllables ; as, o, pro, do; ergo,* 
signifying " for the sake of" — or, " on account of ;" and 
datives and ablatives of the second declension ; as, somno, 
tuo, vento-^-have the final vowel long. 

Excep. 2. Adverbs derived from adjectives and pro- 
nouns have the final o long ; as, subito, merito, multo, 
raro, eoA 

Observ. The final o is, however, short in cito, immo, 
quomodo, dummodo, postmodo, modo, (the adverb,) ego,t 

Excep. 3. The adverb serd, the conjunction verb, pos- 
tremp, idcirco, and the other words enumerated, have the 
final o common. 


Rule. Quando, presto, Apollo, homo. Excep. 1. Atho, 
Alecto, pro, sto ; deo, filio. Excep. 2. Certo, tanto, falso. 
Observ, 1. Quomodo, tantummoao, cito. Excep. 3. Id- 
circo, porro, adeo, retro. 

Promiscuous Examples. Ergo, [3, 30], Clio [Gr. 1, 30], 

Cantabro [3, 4, 30], moto [9, 30], data [9, 27], consiti 

3, 9, 29], soluto [10, 30], tacito [10, 28], subito [11, 9, 

], viginti [3, 29], Achille [3, 28], plora [27], facitote 
[25, 26, 28], pecuniae [5, 5 — fr. pecii, " cattle, sheep," 
anciently used in barter for money — 1, 2]. 


Rule. Ambdjbrentes cetatibus, Arcades ambo. Virg. 

Ambo relucentes, ambo candore togati. Mant. 

Exc. 1. Inforibus letum Androgeo ; turn pendere pomas. 
* Virg. 

* * Ergo, signifying " therefore," is common, according to the general rule. 
t These are commonly considered as ablatives of the second declension; but 
might they not be regarded as imitations of the Greek termination o>s, with the 
$ elided ; agreeably to the Greek usage ? 
X Carey, however, makes the final vowel in ego common. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Opatribus plebes, v digni consule patres ! Claud. 

, Aurb pulsa Jules, aurb venaliajura. Propert. 

Exc. 2. Pcena autcm vehemens, et multb savior ittis. Juv. 

Ibit eb, quo vis, qui zonam perdidit, inquit. Hon 
Obs. Ast ego qua divum incedo regina, Jovisque. Virg. 
Exc. 3. Imperium tibi sero datum ; victoria velox. Claud. 

Hie verb victus genitor se tollit ad auras. Virg. 


Final Ulong; B, T, D, short. 

* U semper produc ; b, t, d, corripe semper. 
B produc peregrinum, at contrahe nenuque et indu. 

The final u is generally long ; as, manu, cornu, metu, 
Panthu, (Gr. voc.) diu. Latin words terminating in b, t, 
or d> usually have the final vowel short; as, ab, quid, et, 
amdt. (£7" Foreign words are commonly long ; as, Job, 
Jacob ; David, Benaddd. 

Excep. Indu and menu have the u short : as also have 
many words ending with short us; by the elision of the 
final *, to prevent the vowel from becoming long by its 
position before the succeeding consonant ; as, pUnu\ for 
plenus ; nunciu 1 , for nuncius. 

Observ. Third persons singular of the perfect tense, 
contracting ivit or ut into it, or avlt into at, — have the 
final vowel long (by Rule II) ; as, petit for petut or peti- 
vtt ; obit for obut or obivit ; irritdt for irritavtt. 


Rule. Vultu, cornu, Melampu, (Gr. voc.) ob, caput, 
audiet, quid. Excep. Nenii, indu j plenii'. Observ. Ablt 
for abivit, petit for petivlt, creat for creavit. 

Promiscuous Examples. Amaverit [23, 24 t 31], pepSitt 
[8, 8, 31], biblt [7, 31], (atidico [5, 12, 6, 30], semisopitUf 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

FINAL C. 47 

idem [aeut. 12], 

" , generat 

. ,6— fr. 

qu»ro — 30]. 


Kule. Parce rnetu Cytherea, manent immota tttorum. Virg. 
Quo res summa loco, Panthu ? quamprendbnus arcem ? Id. 

Exc. Necjacereindumanus,viaquamunitajidei. Lucret. 
Vicimus o socii, et magnam pugnavimu' pugrtam. En. 

Obs. Magnus civis obit, et formidatus Othoni. Juv. 


Of Final C, 

C longum est Brevia nee, fac, quibus adjice donee. 
Uic pronomen, et hoc primo et quarto variabis. 

Final c has the preceding vowel generally long ; as, sic, 
hue, UBc, hie, (adv.), hoe (abl). 

Excep. 1. Nee, donee, and fac (imperative), have the 
final vowel short. 

Excep. 2. The pronouns ktc and hoc (neut.), are com- 
mon, but more frequently long than short. OCT" The 
imperatives die and due do not come under this rule, 
being only abbreviations of dice and duce, in which the 
quantity of i and u is not affected by the apocope of the 
final vowel. 

examples by single words. 

Rule. Sic, Hoc, illuc. Excep. 1. Donee, nee, fac. 
. Excep. 2. HTc, hoc. f 

Promiscuous Examples. Ita [27], Lycida [Gr. voc. 27], 
fane [28], facie [1, 28], re [28], tace [28], uti [29], 
Afoi [2, Gr. 29], sib! [29], -hue [32], nee [31], pronu- 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

48 FINAL 1. 

ba [11, 6, 27], ludlbria [5, 4, 1, 27], cdntulero [3, 7, 24, 
30], cicatricis [4, 19]. 


Kule. Made nova virtute, puer : sic itur ad astra. Virg. 

Exc. 1. Donee erisfeliz, muLtos numerabis amicos. Ovid. 

Exc. 2. Hie gladiofidens, hie acer et arduus hasta. Virg. 

Hie mr Jue est, tibi quern promitti sapius audis. Id. 


Of Final L. 
Corripe L. At produc sjal, sol, ml, multaque Hebrtea. 

The final vowel before I is short ; as, mil, simxd, nihil, 
consul, Asdrubal. 

Excep. Sal, sol, and nil, (contracted from nihil,) have 
the final vowel long ; and also Hebrew names ; as, Da- 
niel, Raphael, Ismail. 


Ride. Pol, fel, seme], famul. Excep. Sol, sal ; Mi- 
chael, Daniel. 

Promiscuous Examples. Nil [33], nihil [1, 33], h!c 
[adv. 32], vultu [3, 31], nee [32], amo [30], magistri 
[5— fr. magis— 3, 29], posne [2, 28], Innlxa [3, 3, 27], 
facitote [25, 26, 28], audiebamini [2, 1, 34, 23, 25, 29], 
lapide [18, 29], Httoris [3, 20, 38], oris [from os, " a 
mouth," 20, 38]. 


Rule. Vertit terga citus damnatis, Asdrubdl ausis. Silius. 

Obstupuit simxd ipse, simul perculsus Achates. Virg. 
Exc. De nihUo nihil, in nihilum nil posse reverti. Persius. 

Quum magnus Daniel, qualis vir, quanta potest** ! 


d by Google 

FINAL N. 49 

O* Respecting the quantity of final syllables in m, on 
which Prosodians are not agreed — it has been deemed' 
advisable to insert no rule : as the subject may be more 
properly referred to the " Figures of Prosody;" farther on. 

For the convenience, however, of teachers, who prefer 
the rule in the order of the letters, it is given below.* 

rule xxxrv. 
Final N. 

N produc. — Breviabis at ~en quod -inis breve format ; 

Graecorum quartum, si sit brevis ultima recti ; 

2ra, tamin, In cum corapositis ; rectumque secundae. 

Words, whether in Latin or of Greek , origin, termi- 
nating with 71, have the final vowel generally long ; as, 
in, splin, qu&n, sin, Pan, Siren ; with Actmon, Lacedce- 
fnan, Platon, &c., [written with an u] ; also Greek accu- 
satives in an and en, of the first declen., from the nomi- 
natives in as, es, and e long ; as, Mneun, Anckisen, CaU 
Uopen; genitives plural; as, Myrmidonon, Cimmerion, 
epigrammaton ; and Greek accusatives in on of the Attic 
dialect having a* in the original ; as, Athon, Androgeon. 

Excep. 1. Nouns terminating with en, having inis in 
the gen., have the final vowel short; as, carmen, nurrien, 
nomen, tegnien, fiurrwn. 

Excep. 2. The final vowel before n, is short in all 
Greek accusatives of every declension, whose nomina- 
tive has a short final syllable ; as, Maidn, Scorpion. 

* Af vorat Eothlipsis : prisci breviare solebant. 
Final m, succeeded by a vowel (or the letter A.] in generally elided by Eeth- 
Wpgis : the older poets usually shortened the preceding vowel, preserving the m 
ttom elision : ex. gr :— 

Jnsignita,fere turn millia militum otto. Ennius. 


Digitized by VjOOQlC 

§0 FINAL If. 

Parin, Tbetm, Ityn, Alexin, chelpn : and datives plural 
in in; as, Aremln. 

Excep. 3. An, tamln, in, with their compounds, for- 
snn, $atin\ veruntamen, &c, and viden 1 , have the final 
vowel short. 

Excep. 4. Greek nominatives in on, written with an 
omicron, and corresponding with the second declension 
in Latin, have the final syllable short ; as, Pelion, llion, 

Observ. Greek accusatives also in on [omicron], have 
the final vowel short ; as, Cerberon, Rhodon, Menelaon. 


Rule. Splen, Titan, Siren, Salamin,Cirnmerion, Athon. 
Excep. 1. Pecten, flamen, crimen. Excep. 2. Ibin, jEgi- 
nan, Alexin. Excep. 3. Attamen, viden', satin', nostfn'. 
Excep. 4. Erotion, llion, Pelion. Observ. Rho d5n, Cer- 

Promiscuous Examples. Timidi [5, — fr. timeo — 14, 
29], ©late [2, 15, 28], Csesare [2, 15, 28], exemplar!* 
[3, 3, 15, 1, 27], mulfenbus [1, 17, 22], stemmata [3, 
16, 27], renes [17], hymenaeos [17, 2], mansueti [3, 
17,29], regibus [17, 22], reficio [11, 6, 1, 30], lniquo- 
rum [11, 6, — fr. aequus, 29]. 


Rule. De grege nbn ausim quicquam deponere tecum. Virg. 

Finierat Titan ; omnemque refugerat Orpheus. Ov. 

Actceon ego sum ! dominum cognoscite vestrum. Id. 

Aviitto Anchisen, hie me, pater optime,fessum. Virg. 

Cimmerion etiam obscuras accessit ad or as. Tibid. 
Ex. 1. Tegmen habent capiti; vestigia nudasinistri. Vir. 
Ex. 2. Namqueferunt raptampatriis Mginan ab undis. St. 
Ex. 3. Mittite ;—forsan et hoc olim meminisse juvabiL Vir. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

FINAL R. 51 

Ex. 4. Sibn et Tenedos, S&mo&que et Xanthm et Ide. Or. 
Obe. Laudabunt alii ciaram Rhoden, out MityUnen. Hot. 


Final R. 

R breve. — Cur produc, Fur, Far, quibus adjice Ver, Ndrj 
Et Graium quotquot longum dant iris et Mtker, 
Aer, sir, et Iber. — Sit Cor breve. — Celtiber anceps. — 
Par cum compositis, et lar, producere vulgo 
Norma jubet : sed tu monitus variabis utrumque. 

Words ending in r, have the last vowel or syllable, for 
the most part, short ; as, A?nilcdr, mulierj puer, ter, Hec- 
tor, martyr, semper, precor, audientur. 

Excep. 1. Cur, fur, far, ver, and nar, have the final 
vowel long; — as also have all words of Greek origin, 
forming the genitive sing, in iris long ; as, crater, stater; 
aer, cethir, Sir, and iber : — but the compound of iber is 
common ; as, Celtiber, 

Obser. 1. Pater and mater, although increasing in the 
genitive, have the final vowel short, agreeably to the rule. 

Obser. 2. Cor has the vowel short. 

Excep. 2. Par with its compounds, and Mr have the 
final vowel generally common.* 


Rule. Ver, timor, turtur, Hector, amamur. Excep. L 
Cur, ver ; stater, spinter, Recimer ; aer, Ser, iber : — 
Celtiber. Observ. rater, mat§r. Excep. 2. Par, Lar. 

* Although the quantity of these two words is, in compliance with the authority, 
of some excellent Prosodians, given as common, it must not be concealed, that 
many others of equal authority, agree with Alvary, in regarding it as always 


52 FINAL A3. 

Promiscuous Examples. Amar&ur [23, 24, 36], ®ther€, 
[2, 27, 28], tapetfbus [17, 22], vlrgine [3, 18, 28], Sak* 
mini [Gr. 18, 29] , cornice [3, 19, 28] , vigoris [5, — fr. vigeo, 
—20], «quora [2, 20, 27], doctiora [3, 1. 20, 27], me- 
mori [5, — fr. memini, — 20, 29]. 


Rule. Semper eritpauper, si pauper es,JEmiliane. Mart* 

Angustum formica terens iter, et Mbit in gens. Virg. 

Exc. 1. Multa quidem dixi, cur excusatus abirem.^ Hor. 

Inde mare, inde aer, inde mther ignifer ipse. Lucret 

Ob. 1. Est mihi namque domi pater, est injusta noverca. 

Ob. 2. Molle mihi levibusque cor est violable telis. Ovid. 
Exc. 2. Ludereparimpar,equitare in arundinelonga. Hor. 


Final AS. 

As produc. — Breve Anas. — Grsecorum tertia quartum. 
Corripit — et rectum per adis si patrius exit. 

Words ending in as have the final vowel generally 
long ; as, eras, tempestas, JEneds, Pallas, (PaUantis), 
mas, musas;—a\l verbs terminating in as; such as, amas, 
doceas, legebas ; — gentile nouns ; as, Arpinas, Antias ; — 
and antique genitives; as, vias,familias. 

Excep. 1. Anas is short.* 

Excep. 2. Final as is also short in Greek accusatives 
plural of the third declension ; as, keroas, lampadds, del' 
phinas, Hectords, Heroidds. 

Excep. 3. Greek nouns in as, forming the genitive in 
ados (adis, Latin), are short ; as, Areas, (gen. arcados or 
arcadis) ; Pallas, (gen. Pallados or PaUadis) ; lampas, 

* In Petroniug Arbiter. Burmann, however, conjecture* tbe lection should fee 

Digitized byijOOQl' 

FINAL £8. 53 

Mifo : — also Latin words in as, formed in the manner of 
Greek patronymics ; as, Appias, Adrias, Honorids. 


Rule. Fas, terras, pietas, JEneas, Thomas, Pallas, 
(Pal lands), audiebas ; Antias, Larinas ; curas, (gen.) 
tristitias, (gen). Excep. 1. Anas. Ezcep. 2. Cyclopas, 
erateras, Troas, Nai'das. Excep. 3. Lampas, Pailas, 
(Pallados), Ilias ; Appias, Adrias. 

Promiscuous Examples. Audiebamur [2, 1, 24, 23, 35], 
sol [33], nequis [12], nee [32], forsan [34], omen [34], 
longe [3, 28 adv.], iampadas [3, 16, 26], scio [1, 30], 
Dia [Gr. 1, 27], extra [3, 27], vivimus [25], Alexandria 
[Gr. 3, 3, 1, 27], musas [5, — fr. juSaa, " a muse," — 36]. 


Rule. Quid meus JEneas in te committere tantum ? Virg. 
Forte sua Libycis tempestas appulit oris. Id. 

Exc. 1. Etpictis anas enotata pennis. (Phaloeciah). Petro. 
Exc. 2. Orpheus i?i silvis, inter delphinas Arion. Virg. 
Exc. 3. Bellica Pallas adest, etprotegit cegidefratrem. Ov. 
Adrias unda vadis largam procul expuit algam. A v. 


Final ES. 

Es dabitur longis. — Breviat sed tertia rectum, 
Cum patrii brevis est crescens penultima ; pes hinc 
Excipitur, paries, arils, a&csque, Ceresque. 
Corripe et es de sum, penes, et neutralia Graeca. 
His quintum et rectum numeri dent Graeca secundi. 

The final vowel in es is long ; as, res, quies, Alcides, 
sermxmes, docks, esses, decies ; with the nomin. and vocat. 
plur. of Greek nouns, (coming from the genitive sing, in 
eos), originally written with etg, contracted from ess ; as, 

* Digitized by VjOOQlC 

54 FINAL M. 

heresies, crisis, phrases. The following also have es long; 
genitives of nouns in e, of the first dec! en., as, Eurydicm, 
Penelopes* Ides* Calliopes ; — plural cases of Latin nouns 
of the third and fifth declensions, as, Libyes, Alpkes, res; 
and the antique genitive in es of the fifth declension ; as, 
4ies, rabies. 

Excep. 1. Nouns in es of the third declension, increas- 
ing short in the genitive, have es in the nominative short: 
as, hospes, ales, miles, prapes, limes. 

Observ. 1. Arils, abies, paries, Ceres and pes, with its 
compounds [sonipes, quadruples, &c.,] are long, according 
to the rule. 

Excep. 2. Es in the present tense of the verb sum, is 
short ; as are also its compounds, potes, abes, odes, pro- 
des, &c. ; likewise the final es in the preposition, penes ; 
and in Greek neuters, as, cacoethes, hippomanes, &c. ; in 
Greek nominatives and vocatives plur. of nouns in the 
third declension, increasing in thcgenitive sing., but not 
forming that case in eos ; as, Tritones, rhetor es, damones, 
Arcades, Troes: and Greek vocatives sing., coming from 
nominatives in es, and forming the gen. in eos ; as, De- 
mosthenes, Socrates, &c. 

Observ. 2. Wherever the Latin termination es repre- 
sents the Greek termination rjg, it is of course long ; as, 
Alcides, Brontes, Palamedes. 


Rule. Nubes, artes, Joannes, locuples, quoties, jubes-, 
hsereses, metamorphoses ; Calliopes, Ides, (both gen.) i 
syrtes, dies ; rabies, dies, (both gen.) : Excep. 1. Divetf, 
pedes, seges. Obser. 1. Abies, paries, cornipes. Excep. 
2. £s, potes, ades, penes ; cacoethes, hippomanes ; heroes, 
Amazones, Troades ; Demosthenes, Socrates. Obser. 2. 
Brontes, Palamedes. 

Provrmcuous Examples. Perlturo [11, 9, 26, 30], irca> 



das [3, Or. 10, 36], arlftes [1, 17, 37], sepibus [17, 22], 
Bficha&lis [17], velitis [verb 25], sumus [26], nisi [6,— fir. 
nS,— 29], Perses [3, 37], habltabas [5,— fr. habeo,— 25, 
23, 36], pauper [2, 35], iEnean [2, Gr. 1, 34], ad6s [11, 
37], fama [5,— fr. ?iH,— 27]. 


Rule. Orbus es t et locuples et Bruto consuls dignvs. Mart. 

Anchises alacris palmas utrasque tetendit. Virg. 

<4Zp& i#e quatit; Rhodope'ia cidmina lassat. Claud. 

Exc. 1. Vivitur ex rapto : nan hospes ab hospite tutus. Ov. 

Mtherea quos lapsa plagd Joms ales aperto. Virg. 

Obs. 1. Populus inftuviis, abies m montibus alt is. Id. 

Stat sonipes et free nafer ox spvmantia mandit. Id. 

Exc. 2. Quisquis es, amissos hincjam obliciscere Graios. Id. 

Quern penes arbitrium est, etjus et norma loquendi. 


Scribendi cacoethes, et agro in corde seneseit. Juv. 

Ambo florentes mtatibus, Arcades umbo. Virg. 

Ob. 2. Meferus Akides, tunc quum custode remoto. Stat. 

rule xxxvin. 

Final IS and YS. 

Corripies is et ys.~- Plurales excipe casus. 
G&S, sis, vis, verbum ac nomen, noRsqae, velisque ; 
Audts, cum sociis ; quorum et genitivus in -inis f 
-entisve, aut *tis longum, producito semper. 
ris conjunctivum mos est variare poetis. 

Final syllables in is and ys, have the vowel short ; as 
apis, turris, Jovis, militts, aspicis, credits, bis, is, and 
quis, (nominatives), Itys, Capys, Typkys. 

Excep. 1. All plural cases ending in is have the final 
vowel long ; as, musts, viris, armis, vobis, URs, amaris, 
(adject), quis or quels for quibus, omnis for omnes, and 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

m . FINAL 19 AHD YS. 

wrW* for «r$e*. Contracted plurals, as EHnnps far Erin* 
nyes or Erinnyas havs yj long. 

Observ. 1. The adverbs forts, gratis, and ingrafts, 
have the final syllable long.* 

Excep. 2. GTfa, sty, (with its comDoundst),t?w — whether 
% verb or noun — noils, veils, (with its compounds), aiutis, 
and every second person singular of the fourth conjuga- 
tion ; as, nescis, sentis, ice., have the final vowel long. 

Excep. 3. The final is is long in all nouns forming 
their genitive in entis, inis', or itis, with the penultima 
long; as, Sitnois, (Simoentis), Salamis, (Salaminis), Its, 

Observ. 2. The termination ris in the second future 
indicative and perfect subjunctive, has the i common ; as, 
amaveris, dixerh, miscuerts. 

examples by single words. 

Rule. Lapis, dulcis, ais, inquis, magis, cis, chelys, 
Erinnys. Excep. 1. Pueris, glebis, siccis, quis or quels 
for quibus. Observ. 1. Foris, gratis. Excep. 2. Gils, 
fis, nescis, vis, quamvis, sis, adsls. Excep. 3. Lis, dis, 
Pyrois, Quins. Observ. 2. VitaverTs, egerls, attulerls. 

Promiscuous Examples. Profundens [11, 3, 3], prdcu- 

Tavit [11, 5 — fr. ciira— 23, 31], nequam [12], ubique 

12, 28], hodle [13, 1, 28], jetatls [2, 15, 38], Amilcari 

3, 15, 29], lampadls [3, 16, 38], quamvis [3, 38], Othrys 

38], tulens [7, 24, 38], stetenlnt [7, 24, 3], Imber [3, 35]. 

EXAMPLES in composition. 

Rule. Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amid. Hot. 

Non apis inde tulit collectos sedula flares. Ovid. 

* These adverbs are in reality, datives or abla-tiyes plural. 
t Sueh as; adsis,possis, malts, noiis quamvis, fee. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Donee eris feMx, mvltos numerals amicos. Id. 

Atque utinam ex volts units , vestriquefuissem.Virg. 

At Capys, et quorum melior sententia menti. Id. 

Exc. 1. Prcesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem. Id. 

Nobis hoc portenta Deum dedit ipse creator. Cic. 

Ob. 1. Effugere haudpotis est, ingrafts hceret et angit. Luc. 

Exc. 2. Si vis esse aliquis. — Probitas laudatur et alget. Jut. 

JSescts lieu ! nescis domina fastidia Bonus. Mart. 

Exc. 3. Samnls in ludo ac rudibus causis satis asper. Lucil. 

Obs. 2. Graculus esuriens in ccdum,jusseris, ibit. Juv. 

Miscuerls elixa, simul conchylia turdis. Hot. 


OS Final. 

Vult os produci. — Compos breviatur, et impos, 
Osque ossis : — Graium neutralia jungito, ut Argos— 
Et quot in os Latiae flectuntur more secundse, 
Scripta per o parvum : — patrios, quibus adde Pelasgos. 

Words terminating in os have the final vowel long ; as, 
fids, nepos, virds, bonds, vds, 5$, (oris), Trds, Minos, 
Athds, and all other words which, in Greek, are written 
with w ; as, Androgeos ; with all proper names which 
change lads to leos [Attically ;] as, Peneleds, Demoleos, 

Excep. 1. The final os is short in compos, impos, and 
os, (ossis), with its compound exos; and in Greek neu- 
ters ; as, Argds, Chads, melds. 

Excep. 2. All Greek nouns of the second declension — 
which in Greek are written with an omicron — have the 
final vowel short ; as, Tyros, Arctds, Bids. 

Excbp. 3. All genitives in os, whatever be the nomi- 
native, are short; as, PaUadds, Oileds, Orphedt, Tethyds. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Ride. Custos, ventos, jactatos, nos ; E rectos, herds, 
Androgeos, Nicoleos. Excep. 1. Compos, impds, 6# 
(ossis) ; chads, epos. Excep. 2. Claris, Tenedos, Atro- 
pos. Excep. 3. Arcados, Tereds, Tethyds. 

Promiscuous Examples. Honos [39], viiqs [14, 39], 
muliens [1, 17, 38], lichenes [Gr. 17, 37], Iberis [17, 
38], leg! [dat. fr. lex, 17, 19], cita [fr. cieo, 9, 27], dabrtur 
[23, 25, S5[, llttoris [3, 20, 38], irgonautas [3, 13, 2, 36,] 
me [28], cervlcibus [3, 19, 22], donls [5, — fir. £«for, "a 
gift," the o being changed into n, — 38]. 


Rule. Ut Jlos in septis secretus nascitur hortis. Catullus* 
T)s homini sublime dedit, codumque tueri. Ovid. 
Androgeos offert nobis, socio, agmina credens. Virg. 

Ex. 1. Exbs et exsanguis tumidos perfiuctuat artus. Lucret. 
Et Chads, et Phlegethon, loca nocte silentia late. Vir. 

Ex. 2. Et Tyros instabilis,pretiosaquemurice Sidon. Luc. 
Ex. 3. O furor ! o homines! dirique Prometheos artes ! 



Final US. 

Us breve ponatur. — Produc monosyllaba, queeque 
Casibus increscunt longis, et nomina quarts, 
f Exceptis recto et quinto), et quibus exit in -untis, 
Patrias, et conflata a noti$, contractaque Graeca 
In recto ac patrio, et venerandum nomen IESUS. 

Final us is short ; as, annus, cult us, tempus, fontibus, 
bonus, malus, illius, dicimus, intus, tenus ; and also in the 
nominative and vocative sing, of the fourth declension ; 
as, domus, manus. 

. Digitized by \jQ 

FftfAI* vs. 69 

Excep. 1. In monosyllables the u is long ; as, grus> 
jus, rus, plus. 

r Excep. 2. All nouns having a long penultima in the 
genitive singular, are long in the nominative singular ; 
as, salttSy teUus, palus, virtus. 

Excep. 3. All nouns of the fourth declension (the 
nominative and vocative singular excepted), have final us 
long; as, aditus,vultus,fructus. 

Excep. 4. In words from the Greek, forming their 
genitive in untis, as, Opus, Amathus, Pessinus, the final 
u is long. 

Excep. 5. Compounds from notig, forming the genitive 
in podis or podos, as, Tripus, Melampus, (Edipus, have 
the final u long. 

Observ. Polypus, of the second declension, from the 
Doric, has the u short ; as also have Melampus and 
Qudipus in like circumstances. 

Excep. 6. In Panthus, and other proper names, written 
|n Greek, with the diphthong ovg, contracted from oog, the 
final u is long; — and in genitives from nominatives fern. 
in o (w) ; as, Mantus, from nom. Manto ; Clius, from nom. 
Clio; Didus, nom. Dido, Sec, &c. 

Excep. 7. The final u is long in the venerable name 
of JESUS. 

examples by single words. 

Ride. Opus, melius, quibus, decimiis, penitus; gra- 
dus, quaestus. 

Excep. 1. Siis, plus, thus. Excep. 2. Tellus, salus, 
palus. Excep. 3. Fruetils, domus, manus. Excep. 4. 
Opus, Amathus, Pessinus. Excep. 5. Tripus, Polypus, 
-CEdipus. Observ. Melampus, Polypus, (Doric 2d de- 
epens.) Excep. 6. Panthus; Eratus, Inus, Clothus. 
Excep. 7. Jesus. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Promiscuous Examples. Telltis, (gen. tellfiris) [8, 40l 
s€nslbus [3, 22, 40], Pan {34], tulisti [7, 3, 29], dft& 
runt [7, 24, 3], nequa (fem. of nequis,) [12, 27], profes- 
tus [11, 3, 40,] judex [13, 3], erump^rg [11, 3, 24, 283, 
attigit [3, 6, 31], monimentis [5, 5, 3, 38], movendus [$, 
— fr. moveo, — 3, 40], movisses [5, — fr. movi, — 3, 37], 
mediocris [5, — fr. medius, — 1,4,38], frigoribus [5, — fr. 
&yog, " cold," with the JEoYic digamma (F) prefixed ; at, 
F^yos,— 20, 22, 40]. 


Rule. Heu ! fugc crudeles terras; fuge littus avarum, Vir. 
Serius aut citrus sedem proper amus ad unam. Ovid. 
Opatria ! o divum domus Ilium, et inclyta hello. Vir. 

Exc. 1. Sed rigidumjus est et inevitable mortis. Pedo, 

Exc. 2. Mox etiamfruges tellus inarata ferebat. Ovid* 
Regis opus; sterilisve palus* diu, aptaque remis. Hor. 

* The author avails himself of the opportunity afforded by the introduction of 
this line from the " Art of Poetry," to make a few observations on the position 
of palus, so long a bone of contention among Prosodians ancient and modern. In 
most of the editions of Horace, the line is arranged thus : — 

Regis opus, sterilisque din palus, aptaque remis : — 
making the final syllable of palus short, contrary to Exception 2nd. of the above 
Rule. From the days of the commentator Servius, and the grammarian Prl*» 
cian. down to the last elaborate edition of Horace by Professor Anthon, this line 
has been crux grammaticorum. 

The great Bentley would read— -palus prius.— This emendation would indeed 
remedy the quantity, but at the expense of terseness and beauty. Carey sup- 
poses, that Horace might hare intended palus to be of (he 2nd or 4th declension, 
and thence make the final syllable short without any violation of quantity : 
while the learned professor of Columbia College contents himself with giving the 
various lections of preceding commentators without offering any thing new of his 
own. But, in truth, most of the conjectures, hitherto hazarded on the matter, 
are ingenious rather than satisfactory : for the only solution to the difficulty is 
that afforded by the arrangement given in our text ;— which not only preserves 
the quantity, but detracts nothing from the harmony or rythmical beauty of the 
poet. The hepthemimeral caesura too occurring at lus qf palus, contributes at 
once to the strength as well as to the sweetness of the verse. Bentley's emendtr 
tion does not, to be sure, alter the position of the caesura, but the manifest inele- 
gance of the us in prius, immediately succeeding the us in palus, is abhorrent 
to the curiosa felicitas of the great Lyric poet of antiquity. 

The quantity of the u in aiu, which is long by nature, can oppose no seiioi 
objection to the arrangement adopted; as the instances among the classic authors 

d by Google 


ISk* 3. Quale mania addunt ebori decus, aut ubiflavo. Virg. 
the. 4. Est Amathus, est celsa mthi Paphos, atque Cytkera. 

Ex. 5. Nil validajuvere manus, genitorque Melampus. Id. 
Ob. Utqv£ stib (Bqtt^ribiLs depr ehensum poly pm host em. Ovid. 
Ex. 6. Panthus Othryades, arris Phasbiqtie sacerdos. Virg. 
Ex. 7. Et ccelo et terris venerandum nomen IE S ffS. Anon. 

(E7* Observation, on the Final Syllable of a Verse % as 
usually given on works on Prosody : thus — 

Syllaba cujuvis erit ultima carminis anceps. 

The final syllable of every verse, except the Anapasstic 
and the Ionic a minore,* may be either long or short at 
the option of the poet ; or in the language of Prosodians, 
may be considered common ; i. e. 9 although the final 
syllable be naturally short, it may be reckoned long, and 
although naturally long, it may be reckoned short ; as — 

Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat cequor, 

where the final syllable or, which is short by Rule xxxv, 
forms the second syllable of a spondee, to suit the purpose 
of the poet, and thus becomes long. Again in the fol- 
lowing Sapphic from Horace — 

Crescit occulto velut arbor cevo, 

Ate numberless, where the long rowel or diphthong is made short, before another 
rowel or diphthong, by synalospha or elision ; the diphthong or long vowel 
merely parting with one of its short component vowels, and remaining short : as— 

Insula Ionlo in magno quas dira Celaeno : — 
where the e of the diphthong is elided :— and again, 

Ter sunt oonati imponere Pelid Ossam :— 
Where the long rowel o in Pelio loses one of its two component short times, (or 
.towels,) and remains short before the succeeding rowel. 

* In both these specie*, the final syllable of the line or verse, if not naturally 
" g, should, through means of the synapheia, be rendered long by the concourse 

d by Google 


the final syllable vo t which is in reality long* by RulS 
zxx., is used by the poet as if short, forming the second 
syllable of a trochee, to conclude his verse. 

Such is the mode generally adopted by Prosodians to 
explain the final syllable of a verse. The truth however 
is, that the final syllable of every verse must be regarded 
as always long ; (necessario longa est ;) — being either 
long by nature, or rendered so by the pause required at 
the end of every line : agreeably to the remarks of the 
judicious and elegant Clarke in his Notes on Homer : — 
Ultima cujusque versus syllaba, qualiscunque ea est 
natura....non (ut Grammatici loquuniur) communis, sed 
semper necessario longa est ; propter pausam istam, qua, 
fine versus, syllabaB ultimas pronunciatio necessario pro- 
ducitur. — Ad Iliad, A. 51.* 


1. Patronymics in ides or odes, have their penultimate 
generally short ; as, Priamtdes, Atlantiades, &c., except 
those derived from nouns ending eus ; as, Pelides, Ty&- 
des, &c; as — 

Atque hie Priamtdem laniatum corpore toto. Virg. 
Par sibi Pelides ? nee inania Tartara sentit. Ovid. 

2. Patronymics and all kindred words in ais, eis, itis, 
dis, otis, ine, and one, commonly lengthen the penulti- 
mate ; as, Achats, Ptolemais, Ckryseis, JEneis, MempJii- 
tis, Oceanitis, Minois, Latois, Icaribtis, NUdtis, Nerine, 
Acrisione. But Thebais and Phocais shorten the penul- 
timate. Nereis is common. 

Protinus -32gides, rapta Minoide, Dian. Ovid. 

Thebaidis jussis sua tempora frondibus ornant. Id. 

* See also Cicero (Orator 64) and Qutntilian <?, 4). 

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3* Adjectives in amis, icus, idus, and imus, usually 
ftbof ten the penultimate ; as, Mgyptiacw. dcemoniacus ; 
academtcus, aromaticus; calGdus, perfidus, lepHdus; fini- 
t turns, legitimus ; also superlatives, pulcJierrim7is,fortissi- 
mus, opttmus, maximus, &c. Except meracus, opticus; 
amicus, aprtcus, pudicus, mendicus, posticus ; fidus, infi- 
dus ; litmus, trlmus ; quadrimus, patrlmus, matrimus, 
opimus ; and the two superlatives, Imus and primus. 

Utque suum laqueis, quos caUtdus abdidit auceps. Ov. 
Fidum -32neas affatur Achaten. Virg. 

4. Adjectives in alis, anus, arus, irus, ivus, orus, osus, 
udus, urus, and utus, have their penultimate long ; as, 
conjugalis, dot alis, urbanus, avarus, deUrus, cestivus, 
fugitivus, decorus, formbsus, percrudus, edurus, as tutus. 
But the penultimate of barbarus, opiparus, and oviparus, 
are short. 

Adjecisset opes, animi irritamen avdri. Ovid. 

Pictus acu tunicas ; et barbdra tegmina crurum. Virg. 

5. Verbal adjectives in His shorten the penultimate ; 
as, agilis, facffis, fusilis, uttiis, &c. But adjectives de- 
rived from nouns are generally long ; as, anilis, civilis, 
kerilis, &e., to which may be added extlis, and subtUis; 
also the names of months, Aprilis, Quinctilis, Sextilis : — 
except humilis, partlis, and simUis, a word of uncertain 
origin, whose penultimates are short. But all adjectives 
in atUis, whether derived from verbs or nouns, have the 
penultimate short ; as,plicatUis, versatUis, volatUis, Jluvi- 

. atUis, tec. 

Nee tibi de\ic\& facttes, vulgataque tan turn. Ovid. 
At qui umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu. Virg. 

r 6. Adjectives in inus, derived from living things, and 
denoting possession ; also numeral distributives, proper 
names, and gentile nouns, lengthen the penultimate ; as, 


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AgntnuSj caniniis f leporinus; Binus, trlnus, quinus; AU 
binnsy Cratinus, Justmus; Alezandrinvs, Lattmis y Venn* 
simis,' &e. To these may be added certain adjectives 
having a reference to physical or mental objects and de- 
signations ; as, adulterinus, festinus, gelasinus, genulnus, 
iibertinus, mediastmus, optmcs, and inopinus, paupertinus, 
peregrinus, supinus. Also, adjectives of place ; as, col* 
linus, marinus, viclnus; and those derived from nouns 
denoting time ; as, matutlnus, vespertinus ; and lastly 
these few, not reducible to a class, Austrinus, Caurinus, 
cisterninus, clandestinus, repentinus. 

Sicaniam peregrina colo Ovid. 

Et inatutini volucrum sub culmine cantus. Virg. 

7. Adjectives in inus, derived from inanimate things, 
such as plants, trees, stones, &c ; also from adverbs of 
time, or from substantives denoting the four seasons of 
the year, have their penultimate short ; as, Amaracinus, 
crocinus, kyacintklniis ; cedrtnus, fagimis, oleagmus; 
adamant inus, amethysttntts, smaragdtnus ; coralUnut, 
crystalftmis, murrhinus; Crastinus, diutinus, perendinus, 
pristinus, serotinus ; Eartntis, oportnus, ckimerinus, theri- 
nus; also annotinus, hornotinus. To which add bombg- 
citvus, elephantinus, which seem to refer rather to the silk 
and ivory, than to the animals themselves. 

Et lux cum primum terris se crastina reddet. Virg. , 
. . . . Mens tantum pristina mansit. Ovid. 

8. Diminutives in olus, ola, olum, and ulus, via, tdum, 
shorten the penultimate ; as, urcedlu$,jtliola, muscwlwn; 
LectulztSy ratiunctda, corcuVam^ &c. 

Ante fugam soboles, si quis mihi parvtilus, aula. Virg. 

9. Adverbs in tim lengthen the penultimate ; as, oppi* 
dutim, dietim, virltim, tributim. Except affdtini add 

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J$rpetim; also stdtim, which has however heen length- 
ened by poets living in an age of degenerate Latinity. 

fe Et velut absentem certdtim ActaBona clamant. Ovid. 
Stulta est fides celare quod prodas stdtim. — (Iamb.) 

10. Latin denominatives in aceus, aneus, arius, aticus, 
arms; also verbals in abilis; and words in otitis, what- 
ever their derivation may be, lengthen their antepenulti- 
irrate; as. cretdceus, testdceus ; moment amus, subitaneus ; 
cibarius, herbdrius; aquaticus, fanaticus ; censorius, mes~ 
sarins; am abilis, revocdbilis ; pluvidtUis, plicdtUis, &c. 

Aiunt, cum sibi sint congesta cibdria, sicut. Hot. 
Calcavere pedis, nee solvit aquaticus Auster. Ovid. 

11. Adjectives in icius, derived from nouns, shorten 
the i of the antepenultimate ; as, gentiMcius> patrtcius, 
tribuntcitts. Except novtcius, or novitius. But those 
which come from supines or participles, lengthen the i 
of the antepenultimate ; as, advecticius, commendattcius, 
suppositlcius, &c. 

Patricias omnes opibus cum provocet unus. Juv. 

Jam sedet in ripa, tetrumque novicius horret. Id. 

♦ Hermes suppositicius sibi ipsi. — (PhaL) Mart. 


12. Desideratives in* urio, shorten the antepenultima, 
which in the second and third person is the penult ; as, 
esurio, esuris, esurit. But other verbs in urio lengthen 
that syllable; t\s,ligurio,liguris; scaturio, scaturis, tec. 

The quantity of the first and middle syllables of foreign 
or barbarous words introduced into the Latin language, 
cannot be determined, unless when they fall within the 
general rules. — Those first and middle syllables which 
cannot be ascertained by the preceding rules, must be 
determined by the practice or authority of the poets. 

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On this part of Latin Prosody it were needless to dilate, 
as the modes adopted in the pronunciation of the vowels, 
whether long or short, are so various, and so contradictory 
in various countries, and withal so firmly engrafted on 
their respective usages, that any attempt to lay down gen- 
eral rules would appear not only useless but presumptuous. 
The majority of classical scholars in all these countries 
where the study of Latin language and literature is culti- 
vated, appear to concur in assigning to the vowels of that 
language, the same sound which they give the vowels of 
their own vernacular respectively. How absurd soever 
the custom may be, it is now too firmly fixed to admit a 
remedy : nullis medicabilis verbis. 

In the Catholic Universities and Colleges, the mode 
adopted is that followed on the Continent of Europe ; in 
the Literary Institutions of other denominations, — at least 
of those in the British empire and United States, the mode 
usually adopted, is that followed by the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge in England, and Trinity College, 
Dublin. In many institutions on either side of the At- 
lantic, both methods are, in some measure, blended with 
% ^preponderance, more or less, to either, according to the 
taste of the instructors, or the customs of the locality. The 
consequence is, that the stately and sonorous language of 
ancient Rome, for so many ages the most general medium 
of intercourse, written, printed, and oral, among the liter* 
ati of all nations, is with much difficulty understood by a 
scholar of one country, when read in his hearing by the 
scholar of another ! but when spoken in conversation it is 
scarcely intelligible ! !* 

* Hence the sarcastic apology— for not answering in torn— made by S^aUgcr. 
when addressed in Latin by a Scotchman,— that "he" (Scahger) "did not 
understand Gaelic" 

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Without pretending to censure those who follow the 
modern improvements (?) in the mode of pronouncing the 
Latin words, the compiler ventures to offer a few words in 
defence of the mode, which he had been long taught to 
regard as that least liable to objection, — as nearest, in the 
majority of instances, to the pronunciation of the old Ro- 
mans— -afid consequently as the best. He believes, then, 
that the sounds of the Latin vowels (long) ought to be 
nearly as laid down in the following scale : 

The a long like the English a in far ; m in the Latin words Mars, amire. 
Thee « 7 e in there; " " dies, Mere. 

The* " " tin thine; " « Nibts,a*dirc 

?heo u " din no; " B Hmore, noUte. 

he fi " * 6 in sure; " u mitsa, dico. 

Between the Latin a and the Greek a (8Xq>a) from which 
it had been derived, there could have been no essential 
difference of sound ; being both pronounced when in com- 
bination, like the a in far ; as, dearum, Mcecends ; &e& r 
dpyds : but the foppish and finical sound 'of a in fate , into 
which it has been metamorphosed by modern improve- 
ment, was certainly unknown to the full, open, ore-rotundo 
pronunciation of tne stately lords of the world. To the 
majestic march and sonorous swell of " the long resound- 
ing line " in Latin verse, nothing probably has done more 
injury than this barbarous innovation. 4 

The Latin c, allowedly the n (jjra) of the Greeks, 
must have had a sound exactly similar to that of its 
primitive ; like the English e in there ; or in the French 
words, bite, tete ; as, in acies, diebus. All doubt on the 
subject is removed by the testimony of Eustathius, who 
says that /frj, 0ij, was a sound formed from the bleating 
of sheep ; quoting the well known verse of the poet : 

*0 d* tjUOtog, &<rn8Q ng66atov i Q% 0»j liyuv (ladl^si : 

so that the modernized, attenuated sound of e in we, 

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68 pronunciation. 

foisted on this vowel, had been wholly unknown to the 

The yowel t being the Latin representative of the 
Greek proper diphthong «*, — not of the vowel • (iw*«), as 
some assert, — must be supposed to have preserved the* 
sound of both letters, and to have been pronounced like 
the English t in thine;* as, Nilus, (the river), ifkigema, 
dicere.t Victorinus shows that the quantity of t was 
marked by the ancients as ifei diphthong: which is also 
proved from Lucilios where alluding to the sound of » in 
the plural of words, he says — 

Jam puerei ventre e postremum f actio at que i 
Hoc illeifecere, addes e tct pinguius fiat : — 

" That it may become fuller ;" an observation by no 
means applicable to the sound of c, into which it has 
been too generally converted.! 

In 5, from the Greek <w (<fy*fy«)— -more fortunate than 
its brethren,-H3carcely any difference has yet appeared 
between the two systems alluded to above ; all agreeing 
to give it the sound assigned it by nature, that of the 
English o in no, oh ; in French cdte, and the Latin words 
mobilis, poculum ; agreeably to the quantity of the Greek 
^rowel whence derived. 

In u, from the Greek v (tyiUv), the difference between 
the two systems has, in all probability, been as great as 
in the case of the vowel I ; — the scholars on the Conti- 
nent generally giving it the sound of u in rule (oo), while 
those of the British empire most commonly pronounce it 
like the English u in sure, tube ; as in manu, cornu : — a 

* It must not, however^ be concealed, that this opinion If dtlWrent ftafc that 
of many learned Prosodians. 

t The force of custom has been more than usually capricious in the use e» 
abuse of thlg letter; not unfrequently compelling the bewildered student to tbUow 
two different modes of pronunciation in the same line; as— 

&atulqcte/avo4etmitidiiM4Bacdu>. Viig. 

t Qtk— Penrertcdt 

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sound far preferable, not only from its more uniform pre- 
valence in the recitation of the language, but from its 
greater fullness and expressiveness : yet it must in candor 
be admitted, that the sound given by the scholars of the 
Continent of Europe, approximates more closely to that 
supposed td be the sound of the ancient Romans than the 
one adopted by the scholars of the British empire ; for 
although derived from the Greek v (6ipd6v) t the Latin u 
would appear to have differed widely from its primitive : 
whence Ausonius tells us, that the sound of the Roman 
u "had been unknown to the Greeks" — Cecropiis ignota: 
and Plautus makes his Parasite- say — 

Tu, tu, illic inquam, vin' adferri noctuam — 

comparing it to the note or hooting of the owl. 

With regard to the partial adoption of both systems, the 
natural result is, the absence of all consistency : whereas 
those who strenuously insist on the mincing petit-maitre 
sound of a and e, as in the English vowels in fate and 
?ne f almost uniformly abandon the sound of the English 
vowels in the case of i; and generally in that of «; — 
pronouncing the former as e and the latter as do ! If the 
Latin vowels a and e are doomed to submit to the Saxon 
yoke, why exempt t and u? If t (sounded as e) and u 
(sounded as oo) are retained as agreeable to the method 
of the Romans, why not retain a and e, as unquestion- 
ably pronounced by the same people, and as given in the 
above scale ? In our improvements, let us preserve some 
appearance at least of consistency. Let us Anglicize all 
or Latinize all : but let us not blunder like the foolish 
painter in Horace — 

Tit nee pes nee caput vni 
Reddatur formce. 

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Are sixteen : viz. 1. C-esura ; 2. Synjeresis (with 
its two co-relatives, Crasis and Synecphonesis) ; 3. 
Dijeresis, or Dialysis ; 4. Elision, (divided into 
Synaloepha and Ecthlipsis) ; 5. Systole ; - 6. Dias- 
tole or Ectasis ; 7. Synapheia ; 8. Prothesis ; 9. 
Aphjeresis ; 10. Syncope ; 11. Epenthbsis ; 12. 
Apocope; 13. Paragoge ; 14. Tmesis; 15. Antithe- 
sis ; and 16. Metathesis. 

J. Caesura.* 

The term Caesura is used by Prosodians in two different 
acceptations : — 1st, as applied to whole verses, and 2d, 
as applied to single feet. Lines in poetry are most gene- 
rally so constructed, that the voice of the teader is natu- 
rally required to make a short pause or rest at that part of 
every line or verse, where it can be most conveniently, 
done without injury to the sense or the harmony of the 
line, as, 

Tantce molts eratWRomanam condere gentem. 
Errabant acti JatisWmaria omnia circum. 

The division thus produced by the halt or pause l* 
called Ccesura — Ccesural Pause, or perhaps more cor- 
rectly — Lineal Ccesura. This is the term in its first 
acceptation, and is used chiefly in reference to Hexameter 
verse. It shall be noticed again under the rules for the 
construction of Latin verse. 

Caesura in its second application occurs in the manner 
following : viz., when a foot is made up of syllables be- 
longing to separate consecutive words, and when the first 

* From coder e, «*© cut » or «diTid«.» 

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syllable of that foot is the last syllable of the preceding 
word, then the space, separation, or division between the 
two consecutive words, is called Casura dimply ; or more 
emphatically, the Metrical Ccesura ; as referring to a foot 
or measure ; thus in the following line, 

, Pastojm ovi\um tener\os *&|pellere foetus — 

the Metrical Caesura occurs three times — in the second 
foot, res ovi, where the division takes place between res 
aud ovi ; — in the third foot um tener, where it takes place 
between um and tener; — in fourth foot os de, where it 
takes place between os and de. 

Of Metrical Caesura, there are three kinds ; namely, 
the Syllabic, the Trochaic, and the Monosyllabic. 

The Syllabic Ccesura is that, in which the first part of 
the divided foot consists of the last syllable of the pre- 
ceding word ; as the syllables res, um, and os of the line 
just quoted. 

The Syllabic Casura may take place in five positions ; 
viz., after the first syllable of the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, or 6th 
foot : or in the technical language of Prosodians, the 
Caesura after the 1st syllable of the 2d foot is called 
Triemimeris, that is, " of the third half foot ;" that after 
the 1st syllable of the third foot, or 5th half foot, is called 
Penthemtmeris ; — at the 7th semi-foot, Hepkthemimeris ; 
— at the 9th, Enneemiwteris ; — and at the 11th semi-foot, 
or 1st syllable of the last foot, Hendecemimeris.* This 
Caesura (the Hendecemimeris) never occurs unless where 
the last word is a monosyllable. 


1. Pectori]£ttf inhijans spijrantia | consulit | exta. 

♦ Thene terras are formed of fyu "half," and pep&s or ptpt j "part," with tht 
Greek numeral* prefixed. 

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2. Emicat Euryaltia et I munere 1 victor almici. "-* 

3. Una ea|demque vi|a san|g7«s ani|musquesejquuntui.~ 

4. Graius ho|mo infec|tos linjquens profu| #«* hyme|nceos. 

5. Vertitur | intereja coejlum et ruit | Oceajne aox. 

The CUT* points out the position of the Caesura in each 
line, viz., of the Triemimeris after bus ; of the Pentkemi- 
meris after lus ; — of the Hephthemimeris after guis;->— of, 
the Enneemimeris after gttf ; — of.the Hendecemi?neris afte? 
wo ; or as expressed in the following tabular form : — 



in the 2d i 














or 3d half foot 
or 5th " 
or 7th " 
or 9th " 


or 11th 






Of these pauses or rests, the most beautiful — as tending 
beyond all others to impart sweetness, smoothness, and 
rythm to the verse,— -is that which occurs after the Penthe- 
mimeris. The pause after Triemimeris and Hephthemi- 
meris, are also ornamental, though in a less degree ; but 
the Enneemimeris and Hendecemimeris are injurious to 
harmony, and are to be sparingly used ; unless where the 
want of smoothness may be desirable. 

The Trochaic Casura is that, in which the first part of 
the divided foot consists of either a long and short syllable 
(a trochee " w ) remaining at the end of a word, or of an 
an entire word comprised of a long and a short syllable 
(a trochee) ; as, 

Tortu\natus et | itte de|os qui | now* 5|grestes. Virg*, 

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Here natus in the 2d foot, tile in the third, and novit 
in the 5th, form, each a trochee, and at each of these 
divisions, the Trochaic Ccesjira occurs. 

The Trocliaic Centura may occur in any of the first 
five feet of a verse ; as, 

Talla | voce re|fert, o\terque qua\terque be|ati. Virg. 
2rmd prdjcul cur\rusque vi|rum mi\ratur in|anes. Id. 

The syllables in Italics point out the Caesura. 

Two successive trochees in the 2d and 3d feet should 
be avoided ; as they give the verse a flippant, cantering 
air or manner, which is extremely inelegant and undig- 
nified; as, 

Ergo m*\gisque m&lgisque v!|ri nunc | gloria | claret En. 

The Monosyllabic Ccesura is that, in which the first 
syllable of the divided foot, is a monosyllable ; as, 

Hie vir h\c\e$t i\b\\qiiem pro|mitti|saepius|audIs. Virg. 

Of the three kinds of Caesura, the principal is the 
Syllabic; the next in metrical effect is the Trochaic; but 
the Momsyllabic is inferior to either, and yet, in many 
instances, it would appear to be the principal Caesura in 
the verse. 


Syllaba scvpe brevis Casura extenditur, etsi 
Litera nee duplex nee consona bina sequatur. 

# A short syllable in the Caesura is frequently made long, 
although its vowel may not be followed by two consonants 
or a double letter. 

Instead of attributing this to the power of the Caesura, 
it is more agreeable to the laws of metre to ascribe it to 
the halt, pause, or suspension of the voice invariably 
accompanied by what is called the ictus, which takes 

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place at v the division of the foot, and which beiog cofoted 
into the time or duration of the preceding short syllable, 
makes it long : — the Caesural pause producing an effect 
similar to that of the final pause. Again, the sweji or 
stress of the voice in dactylic versification invariably falling 
on the first syllable* of the foot, produces the same effect 
on that syllable, as if its final letter were pronounced 
double; the voice striking emphatically and dwelling 
forcibly, for an instant, on the latter of the double letters.T 

2. — SYNJEREsis,t with its two co-relatives, Crasis$ and 

Syttaba, de gemina facta una, Synseresis e*to. 

Two vowels naturally forming separate syllables, but 
read and pronounced as one syllable, form a Symzretis; 
as, o-t-0, pronounced ai-o. 



Pro-tn-de,pro-hi-be-at, Tro-i*a, a-i-unt, &c., pronounced 
prmn-de, proi-be-at, TrTh-a, dl-unt. 


Proinde tona eloquio, solitum tiM; meque timoris. Virg. 

making a diphthong of the two contiguous vowels in the 
word Pro-in-de, — Prwn-de> and preserving the sound of 

* Called the &p<n f or " elevation ;"— the tone being here always more elevated : 
the other part being called $£as or "depression;" this part of the foot being 
comparatively depressed. 

t To render this familiar to the young Prosodian, he should be taught to read 
the Csesural syllables in the five verses given above, with a strong emphasis, a» 
if written PectorilmSS, EuryaluSS, SanguiSS, Pro^ruSS, &c, fbnibty, 
although momentarily, dwelling on the duplicated letter. Serving on JKnefd, 3, 
91, says the syllable is made long JinalUatis ration* : and QnlntifTan, Lib. 9, c. 4, 
agrees that— in ipaaJvoUUtne verborum (the Caesura 1 * quoddam latent tempw~ 

t ffeom wvatparis, u a contraction." 

J From KpStrify "a mixture" or "blending.?' 

If from (rvvKK^tavifaiSt "a mutation of sound." 

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both. This seems the peculiar province of Synarresis, as 
(he other contractions and alterations attributed to this 
figure, more properly come under the head of Crasis and 


. Blends or runs two vowels into one, so that the sound 
#f one at least is lost ; as, pro-emo~-pro-mo. 


E-a^dem (eadem), co-al-u~e-rint (coahteHnt), al-ve~&fi*a 
{atvearia), &e., — pronounced adem, co4uerint, alvaria. 


Seu lento fuerint alvearia vimine texta. Virg. 

To Crasis then — as the name indicates — properly be- 
longs all contractions, where the sound of one of the two 
contiguous vowels is lost. 

Is the change of a vowel sound into that of a conso- 
nant; as, of land of Cinto the sound of J and T, (or 
W) ; as, parietibus, pronounced par*yetibus. 

examples by single words. 

Genua, tenuis, pituita, tolas, fortutio> &c., — pronounced 
gen-va or wa, ten-vis or -4ms,pU-wita, twos, for t-wito, &c. 

examples in composition. 
Hcerent parietibus scala, postesque, sub ipsos. Virg. 
3. — Dleresis,* or Dialysis.I 
Distrahit in geminas resoluta Diaeresis imam. 
A Di&resis is the division of one syllable into two ; as 
mtrm for aura. 

* Fwm *t*(p*is, "a division." 
t Ttm ft&Xvffis, " a loosening." 

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Silua (for silva), solua (for solvo), suadent (for suadent), 
Tro4-a (for Troi-a)> Ecquis (for Ecquis.) 


Mthereum sensum, atque aurai' simplicis ignem. Virg. 
4. — Elision* is divided in Synaloephat and Ecthlipsis.t 

1. Synalcepha. 

Dipthongum aut vocalem haurit Synaloepha priorem. 

Synal&pha is the elision (or cutting off) of a vowel or 
diphthong at the end of a word, when the following word 
begins with a vowel or diphthong, or the letter h; as r 
conticuer' omnes, for conticuere omnes. 


Intentiqu' or a (for intentique or a) Dardanid* emuris 
(for Dardanidce e muris), ub' ingens (for t ubi ingens), 
atqy? yemes (for atque hyemes.) 


Quidve moror ? si omnes uno ordine habetis Achivos. Yit. 
This line must be scanned thus : — 
Quidve moror ? s'omnes un' ordin' habetis Achivos. 

2. Egthlipsis. 

M vorat Ecthlipsis, quoties vocalibus anteit. 

EcMipsis cuts off the final m and the preceding 
vowel ,$ when the following word begins with a vowel ; 
as, virtu? ex for virtiUem ex. 

* From elisio (wh. fr. eliderc), "a cutting off." 

t From ovvaXon^ijf, "* coalescing," or rather "a re-anointing or smearing over, 
to conceal or destroy the last coat or layer." 
t From iit0\i\pts, "a striking out." 

f The preceding vowel is— to speak accurately— thus cut off by the Synatoaha, 
* on the removal of the m. ^^ 

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O ! quant' est for O ! quantum est) tec' una (for tecum 
una),ferend i est (for ferendum est). 


Disce, puer, virtutem ex me, verumque laborem. 
Fortunam ex aliis. Virg. 

5. — Systole.* 
Systole prcecipitat positu vel origine longam. 
Systole shortens a syllable otherwise long by nature or 
by position ; as, viden' for videsne. • 


Steterunt, tuUrunt, kodie (for hoc-die), obicis (for ob* 
jicis), omitto (for obmitto). 


Cum svhitb assurgens fluctu nimbosus X>rionA Virg. 

6. — Diastole,! or Ectasis.§ 
Ectasis extenditque brevem, duplicatque elementum. 
By Ectasis a syllable naturally short is made long ; as, 

Italia for Italia : it sometimes doubles the consonant ; as, 

relligio for religio. 


ReUiquice, repperit, Priamides (from Priamus), Arabia, 
(from Arabs). 


Qui clypeo, galeaque, Macedoma^ue, sarissa. Ovid. 

* From ovcroM, "a contraction, or shortening." 

JET* For the objections urged against the existence of Systole, the curious 
student should read Carey. Anthon and others, under this head. 

t Written in Greek with an w, and consequently long by nature, it is here 
shortened by the figure. 

1 From SiaaroXfi, "an extension," or "lengthening." 

f From Isroflriff, the same. 


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< 7. — Synaphbia.* 

Copulat irrupto verms Synapheia tenore. 

Synapheia connects verses together, in such a manner 
as to make them run on uninterruptedly, as if not divided 
v into separate lines or verses. By this mode of connect- 
ing lines together— irrupto tenore — the initial syllable of 
a succeeding verse has an influence on the final syllable 
of the preceding, — affecting it by the concourse of con- 
sonants, by ecthUpsis, and by synaloepha. The use of sy- 
napheia was however confined principally to aaapMtic 
verse and the Io«ic a minore. In other species of van*, 
it was rarely introduced by any of the great poets. 

The following anapaestic lines are examples of Syna- 
pheia : 

Prb}ceps\sylvasimdntes\que fugU\ 
Citus Act\adn,HdgiGs\que magt$\ 
Pede per\sakus\et sax\a vagus\ 
MetuU\motdslZephyrls\plumas\ Seneca. 

By reading these lines — continue carmine — the natu- 
rally short final syllables of fiigit, magU, and vagus, re- 
spectively become long by position before their own fi- 
nal, and the initial consonants in the lines immediately 

Virgil's hexameters also furnish some examples ; as — 

Jactemur, doceas : ignari kominumque locorum\(fX% 
Erramus, vento hue et vastis fluctUms acti. 

In this example the first line ends with rum, the 
superfluous syllable que at the termination, combines 
with Er the first syllable in the second line, and thence 
by Synapheia and Synaloepha, produces Qu'irra,— as a 
spondee, to commence the second line. 41 

* From evwaibcta, tt % conjunction, or joining together." 
t The celebrated Bentley, in his Dissertation npon PhuloHt, fc*4 tfef Htjfc 
of discovering the law of Synapheia. 


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8. — Prosthesis.* 9. — ApHJBREsis.t 

Principium apponit Prosthesis, quod Aphaeresis aufert. 

.. Prosthesis adds a letter or syllable to the beginning of 
a word ; while Apheeresis takes away a letter or syllable 
from it. Examples of Prosthesis — Gnatus for Natus ; 
Tetuli for Tuli : — of Apheeresis — 'st for est, Camander 
and Maragdus for Scamander and Smaragdus. 


Tu poteras virides pennis hebetare smaragdos. J Ovid. 

10. — Syncope. § 11. — Epenthesis.II 

Syncope de medio toUit, quod Epenthesis addit. 

Syncope takes away a letter or syllable from the mid- 
dle of a word, while Epenthesis adds it. Examples of 
Syncope. — Periclum (for Pericvlum), Pcenum (for Pa- 
norum), aspris (for asperis), audiit (for audivit) : — of 
Epenthesis. — Redeo (for re~eo), seditio (for se-itio), plum 
(for plui). 


Cingite fronde comas, et pocula porgiteV dextris. Virg. 

12. — Apocope.** 13. — 
Apocope demit finem, quern dot Paragoge. 

Apocope strikes off, while Paragoge adds, a final letter 
or syllable. 

Examples of Apocope. Men 9 (for mene), tuguri (for 

* From irp6o8e<rts, "an addition." 
+ From d<pat peats, u a taking away." 
± Where the initial s is not pronounced. 
§ From <rvy*o>i?, "a cutting away." 
fl From litivBecis, "an insertion." 
iT PorgUe—tor porrigite. 
** From diroKdirn, "a cutting off." 
ft From napayuyfj, "a bringing into." 


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tugurii) $ neu (for neve) : — of Paragoge—Detudier (for 
dehtdi % legier (for legi), amarier (for amort). * 


At Venulus, dicta parens, ita farier* inftt. Virg. i 

14.— TMESlS.t ■' 

Per Traesim inseritur medio vox altera vocis. 

Tmesis is the separation of a word into two parts, for 
the insertion of another word between the parts dlrided. 


Qui te cumque (for quicunque te), Septem subject* 
Trioni (for Septemtrioni). 


Talis Hyperboreo Septem subjecta trioni. Virg. 

15. — Antithesis.* 16. — Metathesis.^ 

Nonnunquam Antithesi mutatur litera, ut olli ; 
Cum propria migrat de sede, Metathesis esto. 

Antithesis substitutes one letter for another ; as otti for 
illi: while Metathesis changes the order of the letters in 
a word ; as, Thymbre for Thymber. 


Of Antithesis. — Faciundum for faci£ndum y Publictat fat 
Poplicus — PoptUicus, Vult, for volt, adsum for as$um % Jot.? 
of Metathesis — Corcodilus for Crocodilus, extremus for ea> 
terrimm — by syncope, extefmm, supremus for svperrwtut 
— by syncope, super'mus, Sec. 

* Forfar*. 

t From rufiais, a * cutting or incision." 
1 From <frr{0«r<f, "a substitution," 
{ From ptrilkiK, « n transposition." 




Tu quoqne cognosce* in me, Meleagre,* sororem. Ovid. 


Although most of the foregoing figures of Prosody may 
be considered imaginary, being, in reality, nothing more, 
than so many Archaisms, Anomalies, or Poetic Licenses, 
still it was deemed necessary, in compliance with custom — 

Quern penes arlitrium est, et jus et norma loquendi — 

to give them place, as conducive to the perfection of the 
plan proposed in this little work; particularly, as the 
curious reader will, in the course of his studies, find 
these figures, on most occasions, treated of under their 
proper appellations by the most learned Grammarians, 
Prosodians, and Commentators. 



1. Poems (carm&na) are composed of verses or lines ; 
verses are composed of feet,t and feet of syllables. A 

* For Msleager. 

t Feet in metre are thus denominated, because the *gle* appears by thcJraid, 
to more alone in measured pace, through the ▼eree. Foot at applied to poetry 
may »l*o be thus derived :— According to Marius Victorious, arris was the noise- 
less raising of the foot— SuMatio pedis sine sono,— while Uteris wai the dropping 
-of it. audibly striking the ground— posltio pedis asm sono .•— observing also, that 
It was not so much by the number of syllables, as by the tkee, the arris asm 
theris were regulated. Horace himself, and after him Tereatianns Ifaurus, 
-allude to this method of distinguishing the loot J keeping time according to tfcs 
arsis and thce^ by the tailing of the thiimbtt % 

Lesbiom serrate pedem, meique 

PoIKcis ietwn. Lib. to. Ode ti. 
Versed* so called from turning back (vertendo); because when the line is don* 
-pleted-by the requisite number of syllables, we turn back to the beginning of 
•asjdfher Hue. By the Greeks, it was called ori%oi, "order" or "rank," from the 
disposition of the hues. From ert%t. and tbuavf, " the half/' comes hemistteh, 
•or iaffwerse. The term hemistich is also usually applied to either portion* of i 
UMorw^rse dtrmed at the penthemimeris; a*,— 

Mire t&ete vJhteHMewtswsgwe o jo cow o Vts esMfn* Visg* 

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foot, then, is a combination of syllables . employed in 
measuring verse. 

2. Feet are either simple or compound. Simple feet 
consist of two or three syllables ; compound feet are., 
formed by joining together two simple feet. 

3. All trie possible combinations of two syllables are 
four; — of three syllables, eight; — and of four syllables,'' 
sixteen : making twenty-eight different kinds* To these 
some Prosodians add two other compound feet of five 
syllables ; viz., — the Dochimus or Dochmius, and Meso- 
macer : making thirty in all. 


1. The Spondee* (Spondaus) consists of two long syl- 
lables ; as, omnes. 

2. The PyrrhichI (Pyrrhichius) consists of two short 
syllables ; as, deus. 

3. The Trochee t {Trochaw) consists of one long and 
one short syllable ; as, servat. 

4. The Iambus^ (Iambus) consists of one short and one 
long syllable ; as, pids. ? 



1. The MolossusII (Molossus) consists of three long, 
syllables ; as, delectant. 

* Derived from owo*6fi, "a libation," being originally used from its majestic 
gravity, in the slow solemn chant at sacrifices. - 

t So called, from irvfifrxn, "a maxtial dance" performed by armed men, hi 
which this quick and lively measure was predominant. Some derive it from 
Ifrrhus, son of Achilles, as the inventor; while others attribute it to Pyrrhteua, 
the Cydonian. 

t Supposed to be derived from rptxtiv^ " to ran,"— r/>o%<5s, "a wheel," from its 
lively movement By the Greeks it was also called xoptios, (from x*>»£t *» 
dance ") and by the Latins Choraus, from its adaptation for dancing. 

§ From l&KreiVj "to rail against; because this' foot was first used in satirical 
compositions. Others derive it from the nymph lutnbe f by whom it was used in 
* ' C for Ceres to alleviate her grief for the loss of Proserpina. 

ter Molossus, son of Pyrrhus and Andromache, who used to sing hymns 
•ed in this metre, before the shrine of Dodona; or, as others say, from As 
need in she war songs of the Maiottiy a people of Epirus, 

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2. The Tbibragm* ( Trtbnkhys) consists of three short 
syllables ; as, rrieUus. 

3. The Dactyl (Dactylus) consists of one long and 
two short ; as carmina. 

4 The ANAPiESTt (Anapmtus) consists of two short 
syllables and one long one ; as, dmmos. 

5. The Bacchius§ (Baxxitos) consists of one short syl- 
lable followed by two long onfes ; as, dolor es. 

6. The AntibacchhtsII {? J »ti$ax xtios) consists of two 
long syllables followed by a short one ; as, pilfonttLr. 

7. The AmphimacbkIT (A(iq>lftuxqog) consists of one 
short syllable between two long ones ; as, castitas. 

8. The Amphibrach** (Amphibrachys) consists of o«e 
long syllable between two short ones ; as, amare. 


1. The Dispondjeus, or Double Spondee, is composed 
of four long syllables, or two spondees ; as, inftnlth. 

2. The PBocBLEusMATicustt is composed of two pyr- 
rhichs, or four short syllables ; as, honunibus. 

by Ottihtflian, TrocMMit 

t From iwcrvXos, "a finger;" which hM one long joint and two short one*. 
Some derive it ab I&tis Dactylit, by whom this metre was used in the songs and 
masks played and sung to drown the cries of the infant Jaatter, while being eon* 
coaled «n Ida from the child-devouring Satnrn. By others it was called Her6u$, 
torn its use in describing heroic achievements. 

t From A»anai<a, u I strike or beat in reverse order f U ea nt c these who danced 
aeeor ling to the cadence of this foot, need to beat the ground in a manner differ- 
ent from those observing the dactylic movement. Hence it was also called ' Atr<- 
6Jumt\os (Antidactwlns) by the Greeks, ami RstroaH** by the Lathis. 

S So called from its frequent nse in hymns to Baechns. 

(1 From its being used in opposition to the Bacchius ; in the same way probably 
as th*Anap*st and the Dactyl 

V From d/idi, «on hot* sides," and /*«*peY. "long." Of* TM* foot is aim 

" * Cnsro; (Crslinis) and is then derived from the fancied similarity be- 
-..„_ this measure and the time observed hf the Cetybantes of Crete when 
strifctaf on their shields or cymbals to drown the cries of the infant Jnpiter; as 

already mentioned m the note on the Daetvl. 
"From «>**, «on both sides," and ft { 

ad &fx*ti "short." 

. . __, omnmnd" given by 

•dance, which was performed in double quick time. Others derive it from the 

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•ft From KiXevaftd, * the word of commend " given by the te*fo* of acbotror 


3. The Diiambus, or Double Iambus, consists of two 
iambi ; as, severitas. 

4. The Ditroch-eus, or Dichoraeus, consists of two 
trochees; as, permanere. 

5. The Iomcus Major (or a Majore) consists of a 
spondee and a pyrrhic — two long and two short; as, 

6. The Ionicus Minor (or a Min&re) consists of a 
pyrrhich and a spondee — two short and two long ; as^ 

7. The Choriambus consists of a choraeus or trochseus, 
and an iambus — two short between two long ; as, noli- 

8. The AntispastI (Antispastus) consists of an iambus 
and a trochee — two long between two short ; as, secundare. 

9. The Epitritus Primus, or First Epitrit, consists of 
an iambus and a spondee — one short and three long ; as, 

10. The Epitritus Secundus, or Second Epitrit, con- 
sists of a trochee and a spondee — a long, a short, and two 
long ; as, condtati. 

11. The Epitritus Tertius, or Third Epitrit, consists 
of a spondee and an iambus — two long with a short and 
a long ; as, communicant. 

12. The Epitritus Quartus,$ or Fourth Epitrit, con* 

word given out by the master or captain of a Teasel to encourage bis crew to 
greater exertion and celerity. 

* These two are called Ionic, from their use among the Ionians. One is called 
a majore, because it begins with the greater quantity— two long: the other is 

called a minore. because it begins with the less, that is, with two short syllables. 
Some authors think these measures were so called from Ion. their inventor. 
A ™„-_ * , «_ «^*^_ . ... . , g ijllaWe8 ^^ 

ad rptrott "the 

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t From dvTtaxdoQat, « to be drawn asunder;" two long syllables being sepa- 
rated or drawn asunder by two short ones. 
% These four derive their name from M« beyond," and rptros, "the third;"* 


gists of a spondee and a trochee — three long and one short ; 
as, incdntdre. 

13. The Pjeon Primus, or First Paeon, consists of a 
trochee and a pyrrhich— one long and three short ; as, 

14. The Pjeon Secundus, or Second Paeon, consists of 
an iambus and a pyrrhich — a short, a long, and two short; 
as, resolvere. \ 

15. The Pjeon Tertius, or Third Psson, consists of a 
pyrrhich and a trochee — two short, a long and a short ; 
as, sbdare. 

16. The Pjeon Quartus,* or Fourth Psaon, consists of 
a pyrrhich and an iambus — three short and one long ; as, 

1. The DocHMiust (Mxpios) consists of an Antispast 
and a long syllable — a short, two long, a short and a long ; 
as, aberr aver ant. 

2. The Mesomacer* (Mea6fJia*qog) consists of a pyrrhich 
and a dactyl — two short, a long, and two short ; as, dvi- 

because they hare three measures and something more ; then they are called first, 
second, third, and fourth, from the relative situation or the short syllable. 

* The name of these four is, by some authors, derived from Paum, its inventor. 
Others, however, with more plausibility, derive it from Apollo; to whose honour, 
hymns were composed and sung in this measure. Similar to other metres, the 
Paeon is the opposite to the Epitrit ; whereas in the latter there is one short with 
three long, but in the former there is one long with three short. Thus, also, the 
first, second, third, and fourth Paaons are so named from the relative position of 
the long syllable in each. 

t From 66xjiioSi " oblique or irregular/' on account of its irregularity and devi- 
ation from the customary laws of metre. 

t From /!**(*, "middle," and fieucpos, "from the position of the long la the 
- tM ~t of two short on each side. 

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if is 










!!il jJJlilill 


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S-S ca e c a 2 

3383 8888 88 

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1. Feet that are in metre, considered interchangeabb 
or convertible, have been called bockrwmous.* For md 
stance, as a long syllable contains two timm, while Sisksmt 
syllable contains bat one time, the Spondee consisting ^f/ 
two long syllables is Isochronous, or of equal-time, witfo 
the Anapsst consisting of two short and one long ; — with 
the Dactyl consisting of one long and two short ;— or with 
the Proceleusmatic consisting of four short syllables : and 
vice versa : as in the following scheme : — 

The Spondee — 

The Anapsst w w 

The Dactyl — 

The Proceleusmatic *-* *-* 

thus the long or double time of the first member or first 
half of the Spondee, is equivalent to, or convertible into 
the two single times of the Anapsest, while the double 
time of the second member or second half, is equivalent 
to, or convertible into, the two single times of the Dactyl t 
— and the double time of either member of theSpondeej 
answers a similar purpose for either half of the Proceleos* 
matic : and so again the times of each of the three, are 
resolvable into those of the Spondee.t But of the other 
feet, the Iambus is not substituteable for the Trochee | 
nor is the Spondee for the Amphibrach. 

* That is, even or eautd-timsd ; from Too;, "equal." and XP*r<H, "time." 
t The young Prosodisiimiist beware of niisooneeption on tfo 
critically speaking, no feet are Isochronous, unless they are so in their separate 
numbers, as the war above compared; whose first and second members nnnsfct 
of equal times. Therefore neither a Troche* nor an Amphibrach is IsoohiosjasM 
with any of the four just mentioned. Of this any one may be convinced by 

nounoing the words riclitdi. resum*. repelli^—ttnt AmpbJbraehie frit anot 
comparing them with three Dactyls, eludiri, trnniri, pilleri; the voice niiulilssj, 
more time for the distinct enunciation of the three former than of the three lactic 

%^„~ «.. -,„ »- M . ,—_ - „.. — - - -"ibles when sepaiT^^ 

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because the roice dwells longer on each of the short syllables when separate, tfcaa 
when following each other consecutfrrely. ^™ 

METRE. 89 

2f. The ami* is naturally assigned to the long syllable 
of every foot: in the iambus to the second syllable; in 
the trochee to the first, while on the spondee and tribrach, 
&e position of the arm must depend on circumstances : 
because as the predominant foot and metre always deter- 
ftnae the position for the subordinate feet, the spondee 
Vriien intoonced into iambic or anapaestic verse, has the 
aksu on the second syllable, but in troehaic or dactylic 
verse on the first : so the tribrach introduced in iambic 
verse, has the arsis on the third, and when in trochaic, 
on ihe first. 



1. Metre is most commonly used to signify a combi- 
nation of verses succeeding each other in regular order : 
thus Dactylic metre, Iambic metre, Trochaic metre, are 
synonymous with Dactylic, Iambic, Trochaic verse. 

2. Metre is also used in a more restricted sense to 
signify either a single foot or a combination of feet in 
poetry, and in this sense, it is technically called " a 

. 3. The metres employed in Latin poetry, are six : 
viz., — 1. the Dactylic; 2. the Anapaestic; 3. the Iambic; 
47 the Trochaic ; 5. the Choriarnbic ; 6. the Ionic ;t to 
which may be added another, irreducible to any of these 
six, under the head of Compound Verses, as the 7th kind. 

* See pp. % 74, and 81, for an account of the arsis. 

t These metres are thus designated from their predominance in some particu- 
lar foot ; as each species had been originally composed of those feet only, whence 
the name was given : but other feet of equal time, were afterwards occasionally 
substituted, according as the taste of the poet or the necessity of the verse re* 
fftired. Metres are not unfrequentlj- denominated after some celebrated poet 
who composed in this particular species : as the Alcaic, the Anacreontic, the 
Sapphic, Ac., Ice. 

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4. Metres are likewise divided into eight classes, cor- 
responding to the number of feet or measures whieh they 
contain ;. thus, a verse of eight metres or feet, is called 
Odometer ; — a verse of seven metres is called Heptame- 
ter ; — a verse of six, Hexameter ; — a verse of five. Penta- 
meter ; — of four, Tetrameter ; — of three* Trimeter ;^*fff 
two, Dimeter; — of one, Manometer* ,4) 

5. In Dactylic, Choriambic, and Ionic verse, a melre 
consists of one foot only ; but in Anapastic, Iambic, sad 
Trochaic verse, a metre contains two feet j-^thus, in the 
three former, a Monometer consists of one foot ; — a Di- 
meter, of two feet ; — a Trimeter, of three ; — a Tetrameter, 
of four : — a Pentameter, of Jive ; — an Hexameter, otsix; 
and an Heptameter, of seven feet, while in the three latter, 
a Monometer contains two feet ; — a Dimeter contains fov/r 
feet ;-r-a Trimeter, six; — a Tetrameter, eight; — a Penta- 
meter, ten ; — an Hexameter, twelve ; — and an Heptameter, 

6. ScANNiNGt is the technical division of a line or verse 
into its component feet. It also assigns to each of these 
component feet its proper quantity. 

Directions for scanning. A vowel, or a diphthong, 
or a syllable composed of a vowel and M, is cut off frofci 
the end of a word, when the next word begins with a 
vowel. This is called Elision. Thus, 

Quidve moror? si omnes uno ordine habetis Achivos. Vtr. 
Oentis Iulea, et rapti secreta Quirini. Lucan. 

Monstrum horrenduro, informe, ingens,cui lumen adem turn. 


The combination of* two feet is also ealied a base. 

t Or "Scanding" from Scandere, "to olimb"; as if mounting, olimhing, or 
advancing through the poem, step by step. Among the polished nations of anti- 
quity, more attention was paid to scanning, as indispensable to the elegant rend- 
ing of verse, than among the moderns; who do not seem conscious o/khe poeVa 

Scandere ipd neids, vertieulos lacetat. 


METRE. 91 

most be read in scanning 

Quidve moror ? s' omnes un' ordin' habetis Achivos. 

Gentis Iule', et rapti secreta Quirini 

Monstr' horrend', inform', ingens, cui lumen ademtum. 

The elision of a Towel or diphthong is called Synal&pJia ; 
that of m and the 'vowel before it, EcihUpsis. The ear- 
iier poets frequently elided s final before a consonant, to 
preserve the vowel from becoming long by position ; as, 

, . . Sive foras fertur, non est e&Jini' profecto. Lucret. 
Sceptra potitus, eadem aliis sopitu* quiete est Id. 

And when the next word begins with a vowel, the s is 
sometimes cut off to expose the vowel before it to Elision ; 

Etenim ille qvxmC hue jussu venio Jupiter [Iambic Trim.] 


To be sounded " quo* hue" And in Lucretius, III. 1048, 
we ought to read 

Ossa dedit terra, proinde acfamtdu' mfimus esset. 
instead oifamvl, as it is commonly printed. 

Exc. The interjections o, heu, ah, proh, never suffer 

7. Verses are called AcalaUctic* CatalecticJ Braehy- 
catalectic, Hypercatalectic, (or Hypermeter,) and Acepha- 
lous.X A line or verse that contains an exact number of 
feet without deficiency or excess, is called Acatalectic; 
a line or verse-that wants one syllable of a certain regu- 
lar number of feet, is called Catalectic, or deficient by one; 
a verse wanting two> is called Brachycatalectic, or deficient 

* From AfforaAifjrrtirft, (fr. a priv. and icara\fiyo, "I stop, or cease.'') 
t From KaraXifKTiK^, denoting verses that stop short before completion; 
wanting one syllable. Hence the derivation of the next two kinds is evident. 
X From JfftyaXof . (fir. i pri*. and irc^aXif, - head ") without a head. 


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by two; and if a verse have one or two syllables super- 
fluous, after the regular number of feet is complete, U is 
called Hypercataleetic or Hypermeter; i. e., redundant; 
while a verse that wants a syllable at the beginning, is 
called Acephalous or headless. 


f two I f DistrSphos* or DutrSphon. 

A poem written i three I Hues J Tristr&phos or TriHrdphon. 
in ftansas of \ four [ is called \ Tetrastrdphos or TetrastTdphon. 
I five J I Pentastriphos or P*ntastr6phon. 


a ~~.« ( on® kind ) A# W-1MU , { Monocotost or Monodlm. 
wJS?i«? two kinds >?* T?^<I>ic«osorI>icoton. 
writfcett in J three kinds J b «"•* \ Tricolos or Tricotow. 

Hence poetic composition is distinguished and denomi- 
nated after two different ways ; viz. — 1st, according to the 
variety [or kinds] of verse used ; — 2dly, from the number 
of verses, of which it consists, previous to the completion 
of each strophe ;*.«., before the poem returns to the same 
kind of verse, with which it had commenced. 

First, according to the variety [or kinds] of verse used : 
— a poem written in one kind or sort of verse, is called 
Monocolos, or Monocolon;t a poem written in two kinds 
or sorts of verse, is called Dicolos, or Dicolon ;§ a poem 
written in three kinds or sorts of verse, is called Tricolos, 
or Tricolon.\\ N 

Secondly, according to the number of verses in each 
strophe. When the same kind of verse with which a 
poem commenced, recurs after the second line, the poem 
is denominated Distrophos or Distrophon ;1F when the 
same kind of verse recurs after the third line, the poem 

* From 8is, "twice or dooble," and trrpafifi, "a stanza :'» i 
t From nfoos, "single," and /cc5Aoj>, " a member;"— and at 

' and so of thereat. 

, , „„, , 1 so of the others. 

t As the Eclogues. Georgios, and JEneis of Virgil, the Satires of Horace, and 
Ovid's Metamorphosis,— all consisting of hexameters. i 

§ As Ovid's Epistles, the Elegies of Tibullus, &c.,&c., composed in bexasneter* 
and pentameters alternately. 

II As the Alcaics of Horace. 

* As lik Ode, Lib. i. of Horace. 

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i« denominated Trutrephos or Tristrophm ;* when the 
some kind recurs after the fourth line, it is denominated 
Tetrastrophos or Tetrastrophonji and so of the rest. 

Then by a combination of the preceding terms, a poem 
written in stanzas, consisting of two verses of different 
kinds, is called Dicolon-Distrophon ;t when the stanza 
consists of three verses, but of two sorts only, (one sort 
being twice repeated,) it is called Dicolon-tristropkon ;$ 
when the stanza consists of four verses, — still of two sorts 
only, (one being thrice repeated,) it is called Dkolon-tetra- 
stropkon.W When the poem is written in stanzas consist- 
ing of three lines, each of a different kind, it is called' 
THcj5lon4ristrdphon /T when a stanza consists of four 
verses, but of three kinds only, (one being repeated,) it is 
called Tricolon-tetrastrophon ;** and so of the rest. 




1. General Carwn. These have their last foot always 
„ spondee,tt and the last but one always a dactyl, while 
the rest may indiscriminately be either dactyles or spon- 
dees. The penultimate foot is very seldom a spondee, 
but when it is so, a dactyl most generally precedes it. 

2. Species 1. — Dactylic Hexameter or Heroic Verse 

* As Ode xi. lib. Epod. of Horace, and the Preface to the Hymns of Pruden- 
t As Ode ii. lib. i. of Horace, 
t As the Elegiacs of Ovid, Catullus, Propertius, Tibullus, and many of Horace's 

(As Ode xli. lib. ffl. of Horace. 
As Ode ft. lib. i. of Horace, already quoted. 
As Ode xi. and xiii. lib. Epod. of Horace. 
\ +* As Ode ix. lib. i. of Horace. 

tt Because a dactyl at the end, would become an ampbimacer. jaJ 

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consists of six feet,* varied and limited as above : i. e., 
five dactyls and one spondee ; admitting a spondee instead 
of a dactyl, on any of the first four places, but on the fifth* 
rarely : according to the following scale — 




4 | H 


— » %• *»s 

— — ~ 

- — 

- — 

Raditi|terliqui|dum,ceje-|resneque | commovet] alas. Vir. 
dill J respdn|dlt rex | Alba|i lon|gaI. Ennius. 

Ludere | quae vel-|lemcala-|mo per-jmislt a|gresti. Vrg. 
Margins | terra-)rum por-|rexerat | Amphl-| trite". Ovid. 

The fifth foot should never be a spondee, unless for the* 
purpose of expressing slow or difficult motion, in solemn, 
majestic, or mournful descriptions, or in those expressive 
of dignity, gravity, astonishment, consternation, vastnesa, 
of extent, &c., ore. 

3. Species 2. — Dactylic Tetrameter a priore consists 
of the first four feet of die ordinary hexameter varied and 
limited as in Art. 1 ; with this difference, that the fourth 
or last foot is always a dactyl. 

Lumlni-|bus que pri-|or redi-|it vigor. Boetktut. 
Garrula | per ra-|mos avis | obstrepit. Seneca. 

4. Species 3. — Dactylic Tetrameter a postcriore, htm 
(lie last four feet of an hexameter ; as, 

* As eadh of thew feet— whether dactyls or spondees c o ntains four tim es, 
there axe consequently in every line or Terse— proeudtelly speaking— tv/enty-mv 
times. So eJso in every other species of Terse, nrast the number of times, In pro- 
portion to the number of its feet, be inviolably preserred. Hence appears the 
absurdity of attempting to read Latin Terse, aooordinf to the rules of Kagtisb, 
aeotnt and quantity; by which the twenty-four times of an hexameter line are 
often extended to twenty-nine times ! !— not unlrequently to thirty-one ! ! ! CGr* H 
may be useful to the young Prosodian to bear hi mind, that every regular Hexa- 
meter verse or line must contain not lower than thirteen, and not mote tfcaa 
seventeen, syllables ; i. e., the line or verse may eonsist of Ave spondees and ems 
daetyl (the penultimate foot), making thirteen syllables; or of five dactyls amt 
one spondee, making seventeen syUa&es. 

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Ifamusfo s5cT-|I cdml-|fi§sque. Hor. 
JudicSjte nonjsor didus|auctor. Idem. 
Menso-|rem cohi-|bent Ar-|chyta. Idem. 

5. Species 4. — Tetrameter CatcUectic is the last species 
with its final syllable cut off; as, 

Ibunusjo soci-|i comi-|tes. 

Units e-|nim re-jnim pater | est. Bo'eth. 

6. Species 5.-r- Trimeter (Pkerecratic) consists of a 
spondee, a dactyl, and a spondee without variation ; as, 

Cras do-|naberis|haido. Hor. 
% # By some Prosodians this is scanned as a choriam- 
Mc. See Art. 34, under that head. 

*' : t. Species 6. — Trimeter Cataleotic (Archilochian) 
consists of two dactyls and a syllable ; a spondee beings 
&T<iom admitted ; as, 

Arbor I-|busque co-|mJB. Hor. 

8. Species 7. — Dimeter {Adonic*) consists of a dactyl 
and a spondee without variation ; as, 
Terr(iit|urbem. Hor. 

The Adonic is rarely used unless joined to the Tro- 
chaic, Pentameter or Sapphic : one Adonic being annexed 
to three Sapphics, to form the strophe or stanza. In tragic 
€hdruses, however, it is annexed to any number of Sap- 
phics at the will of the poet.t 


Of Pentameter. 
j 9. Species 1. — Pentameter consists of five feet, of 

i J* So called from the metre used In lamenting the fate of Adonis. 

fci t Sae Sentca, (Edip. act lj— Troas, act 4;— Here Fur. act 3;— Thyett. act 3, 

t Those verses are called irregular, because they deviate from the general 
laid down at the beginning of the genus. - 

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which the first and second are either dactyls or spondees, 
the third is always a spondee, and the fourth and fifth ar$ 
anapaests, according to the scale — 

! i I 





— ~ ~ 

— w »«• 

- - 

>•* *^ — • 

w »«• — 

Lassa-jret vldu-|as pen-|dula te-|la rnanus. Oa#V£. ^ 
fit graci-|Ks struc-|tos ef-|fugit um-|bra rogos. Idem? 

The Pentameter must always have a caesura Penthe- 
mimeris ; and every line ought to conclude with a dis- 
syllable ; as a trisyllable is considered inelegant. 

Another mode of dividing the Pentameter, and whlcjf 
is preferred by the best Prosodians, — is to separate eat 
line into two Catalectic Trimeters (7), the first admittii 
the spondee, the second not: in other words, the fiii._ 
two feet may be either dactyls or spondees, followed by 
a long syllable, then two dactyls followed by another long 
syllable : according to the scale — 







— >•• >«r 

— ~~ 



Lassa-|ret vidu-|asHpendula|tel& ma-|nfis. 
Et graci-jlis struc-|tos||effugit|umbta r6-|gos. 


10. Species 2. — Afomanian Tetrameter Hypercatateel 
4 **c* consists of two divisions, the first being a dactylic 

* Carey who has been followed by Anthon and other distinguished olatsfeal 
scholars— calls it Phalacian, on the authority, it is alleged, of Terentiamu. Be*. 
this writer's meaning appears to have been misunderstood on this passage. T»V. 
rentianus in describing that particular form of verse in the above text , remark*, 
that it is hendecasyUabic. But as in making this remark, he uses a PhaUtdam 
verse, to which species, the term hendecasylhbic is almost exclusively «mf ~ lj * 
he adds, in his prolix manner, that the verse he is describing it-«Jf«r— *d 

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rjentheraimeris, i. e., two feet and a half from the begin- 
ning of an Hexameter, and the second a dactyl and spon- 
dee; as, 

Heu quam|prseclpi-jti||mersa pro-|fundo. Bo'ithms. 

This might be scanned as a common Pentameter defi- 
cient by a semifoot ; as, 

He"u quam|pn£cipl-|tl mer-^sa profun-jdo. 

or still again as a Chorrambic Catalectic Tetrameter ; as, 
Heu quam|prsklpiti|mersa pr5fun|do. 


11. General Canon. The Anapast is everywhere con- 
vertible into a dactyl or a spondee, [and sometimes into 
$ proceleusmatic] with this limitation, that a dactyl is 
rarely found in an even place : i. «., in the second or 
tyurth; — according to the following scale of the Ana- 
ftestic Dimeter — 





","" w w . 

WW — 

12. Species l.—The Anapcsstic series is not limited to 
any definite number of feet, but runs on continuo carmine, 
till it stops short at a pause in the sense, sometimes in 
the middle of a foot. It then begins again, runs on and 
stops short as before ; and so on to the end of the poem. 
It is sometimes printed in verses of four feet ; as, 
Tndfis|gcttdflm||pdtat Xr-faxem, 
AlbIm|Pers83,||Rhenum-|que bibunt. 

e*t»— from ilia* he is using:— "for the totter," says be, "is PhaUtdm, which 
•ball be qfttrwards described." In the original Ms words t~ 
Fiet hendeeasyllabos, sed alter. 

7 Namque hie de genere est PhauBciomm, 

j,^ Cuius mox aw regaltm loqxieaar. 

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Vement|annis|tsa§culafs©Tls ; 
Quibus 0|ceanus||vlncula|rerura, 
Laxet et|ingens||pateat|tellus 
Tlphys-|que novds||detegat|orbes. 
Nee sit|terris||ultima|Thule. # Seneca. 

Sometimes in verses of two feet ; as, 

Defle | te virum, 
Quo non | alius 
Potuit | citius 
Dlscere causas. Seneca. 

But divide them as we may in printing, we should 
always scan the whole paragraph as one line, the verses 
being connected by Synapheia,t and a short syllable at 
the end of a line being always lengthened by a consonant 
or consonants at the beginning of the next : as the final 
syllables of vtrum,t alius, citius, in the above^examplea, 

13. Species 2. — Anapaestic Tetrameter Catalectic (or, 
as called by others, Dimeter Catalectic or Parcemiac) 
consists of three anapaests and a syllable ; varied by the 
admission of a spondee on the first two places ; as, 

Nee vlnct-|ta libi-|dine col-|la. 
Fcedis | submit-|tat habe-|nls. Boeth. 


14. General Canon. Iambic verse is of two kinds, 
pure and mixed. The pure admits no fdbt except the 
iambus ; the mixed admits spondees on the odd places — 
the first, third, &c., and allows any long syllable to be 

* This remarkable prophecy uttered nearly 1500 years before its accomplish- 
ment, has been Terifled to an extraordinary degree, by the discovery of Aiaartoa, 
and its colonisation from Europe. The poet doubtless drew his inspiration turn 
some of the Sybilline vaticinations extant in his day. 

t See Synstpheia, p. 78. 

t M Htera terminatus aceusatirug, in omni genere semper brerem habet. ITU. 
Probus, i. See also Serving dt uUwns syUabis ; and Diomtdes, iii. 

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resolved into two short, by which means, an iambus may 
be converted into a tribrach, and a spondee into a dactyl, 
an anapaest, or a proceleusmatic. Iambic verse, then, 
admits on the even places a tribrach, and on the odd, a 
tribrach, a spondee, dactyl, anapaest or a proceleusmatic. 
But a tribrach is never admitted into the last place, nor 
a proceleusmatic into any but the first ;* according to the 
following scale of an Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic, 







%• — 



V — 

%• — 

w w — 
— w >+* 
w w w »»• 

W Sm* — 

ss W — 

15. Species 1. — Iambic Tetrameter or Octonarius con- 
sists of eight feet, that is, four metres or measures ; and 
admits all the variations ; as, 

Pure. Xdest|celer||phase|lusil||l€quSm|vide||tis hos|pttes. 


Mixed, S§ne |p6lls||t5 te|mulen||ta est mulijer et||temera|ria. 


And agreeably to the practice of the comic poets : — 



16. Species 2. — Tetrameter Catalectic consists of 
seven iambics and a syllable, admitting the variations ; 

Pure. Remitjte pal||lium|mihi||meumjquod in||vdlas|tT. 


* Writers of Comedy Mid of Fable (the latter more sparingly), that their lan- 
guage might approach nearer to that of common life, admit the spondee and ite 
•tonmlents into an the eten placet bnt the last 


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Mixed. Quum delvia(|malier|aves||o8ten|dit 6s||citan|tesk 


And according to the comic license ; — 

Non pos|sumsatF|narra|re qu6s||ludos|pr»bue||ris In|tus. 


17. Species 3. — Trimeter or Senariw (as in the above 
scale) consists of six feet with all the variations ; as, 
Pure. Suis|et ip||saRo|ma vi||ribus|ruit. Hor. 

( Alitijbus atflqiie canl|bus homi||cidam Hec|t3ra. 

Mixed. < _ s Idem. 

( Rex, adjvoca||ta con|cT6-ne,|haBc e|dldit. Pkced. 

And by the usage of comedy and fable : — 

Infes-|tls Tau-||rus mox-|confo-||ditcor-|nIbus. Phcedrus. 
Jam mul-|tos an-||nos est,|cum pos||sideo et-|c6lo. Plan. 

18. Species «4. — Trimeter Catalectic consists of five 
feet and a syllable. It admits the variations, except that 
the spondee is rarely if ever admitted into the fifth place, 
but is into the first and third ; as, 

Pure. Pius|fide-||lis in-|nocens||pudI-|cus. Prudentius. 
Mixed. Regumjque pue-||ris; nec|satel-||les or-|ci. Hor. 

19. Species 5.— Dimeter Hypermeter consists of four 
feet and a syllable, admitting the spondee on the odd 
places; as, 

Non vul-|tus In-|stantis|tyran-||nl. Horace. 

20. Species 6. — Dimeter or Quaternarius has four 
feet, admitting the variations ; — 

Pure. Sacer|nepo-||tibus|cruor. Horace. 

Mixed. Mentis | repen-||detc6n-|griia. Prudentius. 

Most of the beautiful hymns in the Roman Breviary 

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and in the public service of the' CatboKc* Chdtcb, tflre* ••*• 
composed in this metre ; such as that exquisite Morning 
Hymn — 

Jam lu|cis 6r-|[to sl|dere, &c, &c., — 

or Jesu|cor6-||na vir-|ginum, &c., &c, — 

or again . . Vexll-|la re-||gfc pro-|dcunt, &c., &c, — 

all three justly attributed to St. Ambrose : although the 
last has been assigned to Venantius Honorius Fortunatus.* 
In these Dimeters, we find, that, with few exceptions, 
* strict attention has been paid to the rules of Prosody ; the 
verses generally terminating with a trisyllable, which is 
their best cadence.t Somfr of these hymns, however ex- 
cellent in piety and elevated sentiment, are very indifferent 
specimens of Prosodial composition ; as — 

Jesu,|n6stra||redem-|tld, &c., 

* A more beautiful or a more comprehensive matutinal prayer can scarcely be 
tftoed his Creator by the pious student of any religious denomination, than the 
first of the foregoing hymns. We are therefore induced to give it entire for the 
reminiscence of the youthful reader : remarking, that, in reading or recitation, 
the judicious Prosodisn anxious to preserve its harmony and melody, will cause 
the ictus metricus to fall, Jambico more, on every alternate syllable : as thus 
Jam lulcls orllto sildere, 

Deum precemur supplices, 

Ut in diurnis aotibus 

Nos servet a nocentibus. < 

Linguam refraenans temperet, 

Ne litis horror insonet. 

Visum fovendo contegat, 

Ne vanitates hauriat. 

Sint pura cordis intimaj 

Absistat et vecordia. 

Carnis terat superbiam 

Potus cibique parcitas : 

Ut cum dies abscesserit, 

Noctemque sors reduxerit, 

Mundi per abstinentiam 

Ipsi canamus gloriam : 

Deo Patri sit gloria, 

Ejusque soli Filio, 

Cum Spiritu Paracleto, 

Nunc, et per omne seculum. 
+ Much of the sweetness, delicacy and curiosa felicita* of these chaste effu- 
sions of the Christian Muse, is undoubtedly lost to the readers of Latin Hymns, 
unacquainted with Prosody. 

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atfd could nfetor nav6 emanated from the classic pen of the 
accomplished St. Ambrose ; to whom this also has beea 

21. Specibs 7. Dimeter Catalectic or Anacreontic con- 
sists of three feet and a sellable. It admits in the first 
position, a tribrach, a sponfte, or an amphibrach ; rarely 
allowing a spondee in the third ; as — 

Lex hsec|data est||cadu-|cls, 
Deo|juben-||te, mem-|brls ; 
(Jt tem-|peret[labo-|rem, 
Medica-|bilisiv6lup-|tas. Prudentivs. 



22. Species 1. — GaUiambu^ is composed of two Ana- 
creontics (21), with the final syllable cut off: that is, an 
Anacreontic followed by three feet. The third foot of 
both members is always an iambus, and the last but one 
of the whole is commonly a tribrach ; as in the scale 
following — 









\S >m/ '•v' 

v»< — 



%-» — 

Jam jam|dolet||qu6d e-|gi,||jam jam-|qiie pd3-||nitet. CatvJU 
Rdsels|ut huic||label-|lislpalans|sonItus||abit. Idem. 

fego muli-|er egp ad-||6les-|cens,||ego ephe|bus, eg6|puer. 


Some Prosodians mark the scale and divide the lines 
differently ; but the scale and metre above are in accord- 
ance with the structure of the only specimen of the Gal- 
liambus extant, — Catullus's Atys ; in which the tribrach 
in the penultimate foot is predominant. 

* So called from its use by the Galii, or priests of Cybele, in their 

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23. Species 2.* — The Scuzon or Choriambus has six 
feet ; the sixth always a spondee, the fifth always an 
iambus, and the rest varied as in Art. 14 ; thus — 

Miser|Catul-|ie de-|sinas||Inep-|tire. Cattdt. 
Pieta-|te fra-||tres Cu-|ri6s||licet|vlncas. Martial. 

24. Species 3. — Iambic Alcaic, commonly called 
Greater Alcaic, consists of five feet, of which the fourth 
is always an anapaest, and the rest ate iambuses, admit- 
ting the spondee on the first and third ; but as in the Di* 
meter Hypermeter, (19), the first foot is seldom an iambus, 
the third scarcely ever ; as — 

Virtus | repul-||sae nes-|cia sor-|didse. Horace. 

The Greater Alcaic is sometimes scanned with a cho- 
riambus and an iambus, in the latter member or colon ; 
as — 

Virtus |repui-|si£||nescia sor-|didai. 

The Alcaic is also scanned so as to make the first 
colon, an iambic measure and a long syllable, and the 
second, two dactyls : and indeed thts is the mode gene- 
rally followed ; as — 

Virtus|repul|s»||nescia | sordidae.t 


25. General Canon. The trochee is eyerywhere con- 
vertible into a tribrach ; the same feet are also admitted 
into the even places, that iambic verse receives into the 

26. Species 1. — Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic con- 

* Although the Saturnian ought, in regular order, find a place here, as species 
2, still it has not been deemed requisite to introduce it, from its manifest inutility 
to the young Prosodian. 

t This affords an example of the poetica licentia in closing the line with a long 
Syllable, although the measure requires a short one. See p. 49, supra. 


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nmmEBT mrae or time* 

lists of seven feet and a syllable. A tribrach is rarely 
admitted into the sixth place, never into the seventh, except 
in some few passages in comedy. In the case of proper 
names, a dactyl is admissible into anyplace but the fourth 
and seventh ; as in the following scale — 








— w 

— w w 

— w w 

— w w 

— WW 

\-f \-r 

-* \s 

w w 

Pure. Te so-|cer sub-lire|celsa||p6scit|astrajjup!-|ter. 

Mart. Capella. 

Mixed. Impl-|um rapi-[te,atquelmersum]premite|perpetu- 

Ijis ma- 1 lis. Seneca, 

The comic writers, although scarcely venturing to alter 
the seventh foot, introduce the spondee and its equivalents 
into the odd places ; by a license similar to that employed 
in iambic verse ; as, 

Quern res|®tas[usus|semper||aliquid|appor-Itet no|vT. 


In this metre also are written many of the Latin hymns 
used in the Catholic Church ; for which purpose it is ad- 
mirably adapted from its grand, solemn, and sonorous 
character : such as that noble hymn on the Passion of 
our Lord — 


St. Augustinus. 

This is undoubtedly the true mode of writing and 
scanning this beautiful poem, making every stanza consist 
of three lines or verses ; contrary to the mode usually 
followed in the Roman Breviary, of dividing each line 

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into two hemistichs : the first a Trochaic Dimeter, and 
the other a Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic ; by which every 
stanza consists of six lines ; thus, 

Laurg-|am cer-||tamin-|is. 

This division, although contrary to all Prosodial rules, 
was made to suit the convenience of the choir ; — one side 
— or perhaps one choir — singing the complete dimeter, 
and the other the dimeter Catalectic. Some Prosodians 
scan this verse as an Iambic Tetrameter Acep/ialous; as, 

— Pan-|ge lin||gua glo-|rio||si lau-| ream ||certa-| minis : — 

but with a manifest diminution of its stately movement 
and sonorous majesty. It is worthy of remark, that many 
hymns in this metre can be read with a strict observance 
of modern accentuation without violating the Latin quan- 
tity; as, 

S61ve vocem, m£ns, son 6 ram ;|| solve linguam mobilem. 

Scande cceli templa, virgo,||digna tanto fdedere.* 

M. Capetta. 

27 Species 2. — Dimeter Catalectic (Euripedean) con- 
sists of three trochees and a syllable without variation ; 

LargT | ora || flagi- 1 to. Hot . 

Dona|c6nsci-llenti-|ae. Prudent. 


28. Species 1. — SappkM consists of a dactyl inserted 

* The young Prosodian should observe, that hi all these hymns, the caesura 
uniformly takes place at the termination of the fourth foot, corresponding with 
the fifth semifoot of the Iambic trimeter: hence too, in a great measure, sprang 
the error of the copyists and editors of the Breviary in dividing the verses as 
above mentioned. 

t So called from the gifted but ill-starred poetess, its inventor 

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between two trochaic measures ; or in other words, of 
five feet, viz., a trochee, a spondee, a dactyl and two more 
trochees ; followed by an Adonic or Dactylic Dimeter (8) ; 
according to the following scale : 

12 3 4 5 


Inte-|ger vi-|t»* scele- } risque |purus. 
Non e-|get Mau-|ri* jacu-|lis nec|arcu.* 
Nee vd-jnSna-jtis* gravi-|da sa-|glttis, 

Fusee, pha-|retra. Hor. 

An iambus, a trochee or a dactyl is sometimes admit- 
ted into the second place ; but with Horace it is invari- 
ably a spondee ; and the great Roman Lyrist is the safest 

The asterisk * marks the ccesura after the second foot, 
or rather the fifth semifoot. In reciting these odes, the 
pupil should be taught to pay special attention to the 
caesura, and the pause thereby required ; for in no other 
position will the sweetness and harmony of this delightful 
metre be fully preserved. 

29. Species 2. — The Phaleeciani (sometimes called 
Hendecasyttabic) has five feet, of which the second is a 
dactyl and the rest trochees : but the first — in violation 
of the general' canon, Art. 25, — is almost always a 
spondee : so that it may be said to consist of a spondee, 
a dactyl, and three trochees ; as — 

Non est|vivere 5 |sed va-jlere,|vita. Martial. 

* The student must bear in mind what has been stated at p. 49, (note) on the 
nse of a long syllable for a short, and vice versa. 
t So called from the Poet PhaUeoius 

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This metre is extremely well adapted to the composi- 
tion of Epigrams. By a slight transposition, the Sapphic 
may be converted into the Phalfflcian; thus the above 
Sapphic — 

Non eget Mauri jaculis nee arcu, 

may be converted into Phalaecian verse thns — 

Non Mau-]ri jacu-|lis e-!get nec|arcu. 


30. General Canon. These have the first foot a tro- 
chee, the last an iambus, and the intervening feet chori- 
ambuses ; that is, they consist of one choriambus or more 
inserted between the separated members of a choriambus. 
In some instances, the choriambus is exchanged for an 
equivalent molossus, and the initial trochee almost always 
passes into a spondee. 

31. Species 1. — CkoriamMc Pentameter (Choriambie 
Alcaic) consists of a spondee, three choriambuses, and an 
iambus; as, 

Nullam|Vare sacra]vite priusj sevens ar-|borem. Hor. 

32. Species 2. — Tetrameter (Asclepiadean) is the last 
species with one choriambus omitted ; as, 

Nullamjvlte prlus| sevens ar-jborem. 
Mace-|nas atavis|edite re-|gibus. Hor. 

As the ccBSura takes place at the end of the first chori- 
ambus, some Prosodians scan this metre as a Dactylic 
Pentameter, wanting the last syllable ; thus, 

Miice-Jnas ata-fvis || edite | regibus — 

33. Species 3. — Trimeter or Glyconic* is the last 
species with another choriambus thrown out ; as, — 

* So called from the poet GU/co, its inrentor. 

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Nullftm | | — - I severis ar-|borem • 

Sic te | diva pdtens | Cypri. Hor. 
fill | mors gravis in-|cubat, 
Qui no-|tus minis 6m-|nibus, 
Igno-|tus moritur | sibl. Seneca. 

34. Spbcis8 4 — Trimeter Catalectic or Pherecratic* 
is the Glyconic deprived of its final syllable ; as, — 

Quamvls | Pontica pl-|nus. Horace. 

This may also be considered as the three last feet of 
an hexameter (6) and thus scanned — 

Quamvls | Pontica | plnus. 

35. Species 5. — A Pherecratic and a Glyconic joined 
together form what is called Priapean\ Hexameter; as, — 

cd-|lonia quae | cupls||pdnte | ludere lon|go. CatuUus* 


36. Species 1. — Choriambic Tetrameter Hypermeter 
consists of three choriambuses, an iambus and a syllable ; 
(or three choriambuses and a bacchic) ; as, 

Solus 6 van | tern Zephyr us | petdomine|tur an | num. Claud. 

Horace has altered the first choriambus to an Epitritus 
secundus, or lame choriambic tetrameter ; as — 

Te deos 6-|ro, Sybarin | cur properes | aman-|do. 

37. Species 2. — Dimeter Hypermeter (Aristophanian 
Choriambic) consists of a choriambus, an iambus and a 
syllable ; (or of a choriambus and a bacchic ;) as, 

Lydia, die, | per om-|nes. Hor. 


38. General Canon. Ionic verses are of two .kinds, the 

* Prom Pherccrates. 

t Proa ite um in hjmnt to PriapM. 

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Ionic a majors and the Ionic a minor e; or Ionicus Major 
and Ionicus Minor : — thus denominated from the feet of 
which they are respectively composed. 

39. Species 1. — Ionic a minore, like the Anapaestic 
(12), is a continued Series, and scanned as one line by 
Synapheia. If printed in separate verses, the division 
into tetrameters is to be preferred. Ionic a mm*re is 
formed as often as may be required, and without varia- 
tion from the foot whence it derives the name ; 

Miserarum est | neque amori | dare ludum, | neque dulcl. 
M^ila vino | lavere, aut ex-|anlmarl | metuentes. 
Patrii® ver-|bera linguae, | &e., &c. Horace, 

40. Species 2. — If from an Ionic a minore Tetrameter, 
the first two syllables are removed, there will remain 
three Ionici a majore and a spondee, forming the Ionic a 
majore or Sotadic* verse ; as, 

| Vino lave-|re aut exani-|mari metu-|entes. 

Each of the Ionici, particularly the third, is convertible 
into a ditrochee, and any long syllable may be resolved 
into two short ; as — 

Ter corripu-|i tembi-|lem manu bi-|pennem. Petronius. 


41. Species 1. — Dactylico- Trochaic Heptameter (At" 
chilochian) — by some called LogaaduA verses — consists 
of the first four feet of a Dactylic Hexameter, (the fourth 
being always a dactyl), followed by three trochees ; as, 

Solvitur | acris hy|ems gra|ta vice||verrs|et Fa|voni. Hor. 

42. Species 2. — Dactylic Alcaic, commonly called 

* From Sotades, a poet who lampooned Ptolemy Philadelphia in thif metre. 

% From \6yos, K a disconrse," and dmSfi, "a song." because these rereee are a 
combination of the two metres, yis., trochaic, which approximates ordinary eon* 
wertation, and of dactylic appropriated to the more elerated aoarinfs of poetry. 

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Lesser Atom, consists of two dactyls and a trochaic 
metre ; as, 

Flumina | constitS-[rint &-|cut5. Her. 

This, together with two Greater Alcaics (24) and one 
Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter (19), constitutes the cele- 
brated Alcaic Stanza of Horace ; and to which he was 
so partial as to compose no fewer than thirty-seven of 
his exquisite odes, in this metre. 


12 3 4 5 

v_s _— s^ — _ ___ n_s s^ — \^y s^ 

Third Verse. 

12 3 4 5 






— ww 

— »*• >»• 

— w 

— *m* 

Odi|pr6fa-|num||vulgus etjarceo : 
Fave-|te linjguTs :||carmInfi|non prfiis. 
Audi-|t3, Mu-|sarum|sacer-|dos, 
Vlrgini-|bus pue-j risque | canto. Hot. 

Two other kinds of Compound verse would appear to 
be used by Boethius, iv. 5 ; — the one consisting of an 
Adonic (S), preceded by a trochaic metre and a syllable ; 
the other also of an Adonic, preceded by an iambic metre 
and a syllable ; the first member of each admitting the 
usual variations (25, 14) ; as, 

Slquis | Arctu-| [ri| |sidera | nesclt 
PropIn-|qua sum-||mo||cardine*|labi. 

Carey followed by Anthon and other eminent Prosodians, 

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speaks of these, as varieties of Phalacian Pentameter, — 
or according to our classification — of the Alcmanian Te- 
trameter Hypercatalectic (10) ; but the fact, that Boethius, 
throughout the whole of this poem, has regularly used 
the Trochai'co-Dactylic and the lambico-Dactylic alter- 
nately, with scarcely a departure from the Trochaic law 
(25) in the one, or from the Iambic law (14) in the other, 
— forms a weighty objection to this view of the subject. 


BIT" The following hymn, written by Pope Damasus 
about the middle of the fourth century, is given as a liter- 
ary curiosity ; not only as affording one of the earliest 
specimens of rhyming versification so prevalent for many 
ages afterwards, but also as evidence of the method 
of reading verse then customary among the Romans. 
Being written anterior to the decline of the Latin lan- 
guage and while it was yet a living tongue, by one of the 
most accomplished scholars of his age, it demonstrates 
(beyond contradiction, that quantity not accent was re- 
garded as the only safe guide in reading or recitation ; 
because, from the structure of the hymn, it is evident, the 
Pope intended his verses to rhyme. Now this they 
never will do unless read with the nicest attention to 
quantity in the manner following: viz. — let the first 
syllable of every line or verse be separated or pointed off, 
and let the remaining syllables be read «nd pronounced 
as Anapaests ; laying a stress on every third syllable ; 
particularly on the final long ones, and we shall have as 
perfect rhyme as can be desired : thus — 

Mar-|tyris ec|ce dies| JLg&th®, 

Vir-|ginis e|micat ex|imi§B; 
Christus earn sibi qua sociat, 
Et diadema duplex decorat. 

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Stirpe decens, elegarts specie, 
Sed magis actibus atque fide, 
Terrea prospera nil reputans, 
Jussa Dei sibi corde ligans ; 

Fortior haec trucibusque viris, 
Exposuit sua membra flagris. 
Pectore quam fuerit valido, 
Torta mamilla docet patulo. 

Deliciae cm career erat ; 
Pastor ovem Petrus hanc recreat. 
Lsetior inde, magisque flagrans, 
Cuncta flagella cucurrit ovans. 

Ethnica turba, rogum fugieftt,*' 
Hujus et ipsa meretur opem;* 
Quos fidei titulus decorat, 
His Venerem magis ipsa premat. 

Jam renitens, quasi sponsa, polo t 
Pro misero rogito Damaso. 
Sic tua festa coli faciat, 
Se celebrantibus ut faveat. 

* The possibility if not the probability of making opem rhyme with Jvgiem* 
it plausibly argued by Cazey. See his Latin Prosody made JSasy, in toe. 

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Exercises on the Rules of Quantity, Figures of Prosody, 
and Different Species of Verse, 


Tertta post illas successit denea proles. Ovid. 

Omnia jam fient, fieri quae posse negabam. Id. 

Nam, simul ac species patefacta est verna diet. Lucret. 

Morbus ut indicat, et gclidax stringor aqudu Id. 

TJnvus ob noxam, et furias Ajacis Oilei. Virgil. 

Navibus, infandum ! amissis, unlus ob iram. Id. 

Exercet Diana choros, quam mille secutse. Id. 

Ira pharetratsB fertur satiata Diana. Ovid. 

Quam nosjtro illijus lajbatur | pectore | vultus. Virgil. 

Inter cunctantes cecidit moribunda ministros. Virgil. 

Pyrrhumque, et ingentem cecidit. (19.) Horace* 

Pan deus Arcadiae venit, quern vidimus ipsi. Virgil. 

4 . Visa mihi ante oculos, et nota major imago. Id. 

Haec ubi dicta dedit portis sese extulit ingens. Virgil. 

. . Demersa exitio. Diffidit urbium. (32.) Horace* 

Nam ccelo terras, et terris abscidit* undas. Ovid. 

Matre dea monstrante viam, data fata secutus. Virg. 

Cornua vdatarum obvertimus antennarum. Id. 

Insignem pietate vxrum tot adire labdres ... Id. 

♦ . . . JEolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet. Id. 

• But abscidi, from ab$ and c ado, is long. 

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Claudite jam rivos pueri, sat prata blberunt. Id. 

.... Mitibusque jaces, nee te in tua funera mater. Id. 
Jam nunc mindci murmure cornuum. . . . (24.) Horace. 
Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta. Virgil. 

Et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusqite ferebat. Id. 

Et Laberi mimos ut pulcbra po'emata mirer. Horace. 

Et salts occultum referunt in lacte saporem. Virgil. 

Ecce Dionaei processit Casaris astrum. Id. 
Ille, datis vadibus, ruri qui extractus in urbem est . . Hor. 

Nigranti picea, trabibusque obscurus acernis. Virgil. 

Hie Lelegas Carasque, sagittiferosque Gelonos. Id. 

Flumina jam lactis, jam fiumina nectaris ibant Otrid. 

.... Exspirant acrem panaces, absinthia tetra.... Lucret. 

Armatam facibus matrem et serpentibus atris. Virgil. 

Ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo. Ooia). 
(Edipodas facito Telegonasque voces. (9.) Id;, 

Munera porta ntes, eborisque aurique talenta. Virgil. 

Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa. Id. 
Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica senectae. Id. 

Eoasque acies, et nigri Memnonis arma. Id. 

Eripuit, geminique tuHt Chironis in antrum. Ovid.- 

. . . Aut Helicen jubeo, strictumque Ononis ensem. Id. 
Armatumque auro circumspicit Oriona. Virgil. 

Immemores socii vasti Cyclopis in antro. Id. 

Mancipiis locuples eget aeris Cappadocum rex. Horace. 

Ingentem manibus tollit cratera duobus. Onid. 

Ingens argentem, Dodonaeosque lebetas. Virgil? 

. . . Junonis, gelidumque Amenem, et roscida rivis. . . Id. 
Non alii pastos illis egere diebus. Id^ 

Aut impacatos a tergo horrebit Iberos. Id. 

Jupiter antiqui contraxit tempora veris. Ovid. 

^Equatae spirant aurae, datur hora quieti. Virgil. 

Ascanium surgentem, et spes karedis liili. Id. 

Nee de plebe deo, sed qui coelestia magno . . . Ovid* 

. . . Regis Romani ; primus qui ti gibus urbem. . . . Virg. 
Fluminibus vertit vervecum lana colorem. Priscian. 

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Tollere consuetas audent ddphtnes in auras. Ovid. 
Jam jam contingit summum radice flagellum,. Catullus. 
Dextera, quae Ditis magni sub moenia tendit. - Virgil, 
Tractavit caUcem manibus dum furta ligurit. Horace. 
Hinc sinus est longus Cilicum, qui vergit ad ortus. Prise. 
Moenia conspicio, atque ad verso forruce portas. Virgil. 
Florentem cytisum, et saUces carpetis amaras. Id. 

Nee spatio distant Nesidum littora longo. Priscian. 

Paludis in secreta veniet latibula. (17.) Pkcedrus. 

Ambiguam tetture nova Salamina futuram. Horace. 

Una salus victis nullam sperare salutem. Virgil. 

Nam Ligurum populos, et magnas rexerat urbes. Ovid. 
Talis Amyclasi domitus PoUucis habenis. Virgil* 

Cum faciam vitula pro frugibus, ipse venito. Id. 

Trachyna video ; quis mihi terras dedit. (17.) Seneca. 
Halcyone Ceyca movet ; Ceycis in ore ... • Ovid. 

Sive Erycis fines regemque optatis Acesten. Virgil. 

. . . Conserimus, multos Danaum demittimus Oreo. Id. 
Fudimus, insidiis, totaque agitavvmus urbe. Id. 

CsBca sequebatur, totumque incauta per agmen . * . . Id. 
Lac facitote bibat, nostraque sub arbore ludat. Ovid. 

. . . Scripturus ; neque te ut miretur turba labores. Hot. 
Solulus omni foenore* (20.) Id. 

Hoc erat, hoc votis inquit quod saspe pefivi. Virgil. 
Sed quamvis formae nunquam mihi fama petita est. Ovid. 
Nee tamen, et cuncti miserum servare veBtis. Id* 

Nee miserae prodesse in tali tempore quibat. Lucretius. 
ViderUis Stellas illic ubi circulus axem .... Ovid. 

Dein cum millia multa fecerimus. (29.) Catullus. 

. . . Limina portarum, nee spes opis ulla ddbatur. Vtrg. 

Troja per undosum peteretur classibus sequor. Virgih 

Sanguine foedantum quos ipse sacraverat ignes. Id. 

Cannina turn melius, cum venerit ipse canemus. Id. 

Si modo fert animus, gradere, et scitabere ab ipso. Ovid* 


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" Noris lioe " inquit ; docti sumus." Hie ego, " Htt^i8. ,, 


Dexterd diriguit, nee citra, mota nee ultra. . Ovidi. 

Sed tamen iste deus qui sit da Tityre nobis. Virgil. 

. . . Leniit, et tacitd refluens itd substitit, unda . . . Vir. 

Solvite cordl metum Teucri, secludite curas. Virgil. 
Moly vocant superi ; nigra radice tenetur. Ovid. 

NeKee Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque. Virgil. 

Pro re pauca loquar. Nee ego hanc abscondere furto . ..Id. 
Vos Tempi totidem tollite laudibus (32.) Horace. 

Consiliis pare, quae nunc pulcherrima Nantes. . . . Virgil. 
Me mi serum ! ne prona cadas, indignave laedi. Ovid. 
Certe sive mihi Phyllis, sive esset Amyntas . . . Virgil. 
Non bene coelestes impia dextra col it. (9.) Ovid. 

Tecta superne timent, metuunt inferne cavemas. . . . 


Vidi Virgineas intumuisse genas. (9.) Ovid. 

Vultu quo ccelum tempestatesque serenat. Virgil. 

O cru delis Alexi, nihil mea carmina curas. Virgil. 
Sicutx summarum summa est aeterna, neque extra. ... 

Est mihi, sitque precor, flavae tutela Minervae. . . . Ovid.. 
Puella senibus dulcior mihi* cygnis, (23.) Martial* 

Nee jacere irtdu manus, via qua munita fidei. Lucretitts. 

Victa jacet pietas, et Virgo caede madentes. . . . Ovid. 
Cadet in terras Virgo relictas. (12.) Seneca. 

Oro, qui reges consuesti tollere, cur non. . . . Horace. 
Quo fugis ? Orot mane, nee me, crudelis, amantem. . . . 


* Decisive instances of mihi, tibi. &c., with the final t long, occur frequently- 
In lambio Terse. See Plant. Cist. II. a 11. Poenul. I. 3. a Catul. 42. & (aL 45. 
§.); 23. 6. (aL 25. 6.); 8. & 15. Hor. Epod. 4 2; 5. 101 ; 8. 3: 10. 16: 15, 2a ' 
Phied. III. prol. 61 ; 12 7. II. 4. 7. III. 18. 14. IV. 6, 24 II. 5. 4 III. ia 2. Hor. 

t See Or. Met. II. 566. III. 266. XV. 497. Trist. 1. 1.44; 2.77. Am. 111.7.2. 
Hot. Sat. 1. 4 104, *o. 

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Sed timuit, ne forte sacer tot ab ignibus ether. . . Chid. 
Hie vel ad Elei metas et maxima earn pi . . . Virgil. 

Turn pater omnipotens misso perfregit Olympum . . . Ov* 

Ver erat aeternum, placidique tepentibus auris . . Id. 
... Si cita di8siliant nempe aer omne necesse est. . . . 

Dum calet, et medio sol est altissimus orbe. Ovid. 

Sisyphon aspiciens, " cur hie e fratribus " inquit ... Id. 

Sic omnes, ut et ipsa Jo vis conjuxque sororque . . . Ov. 
n/ . « . Ulla tenent, unco non alligat anchora morsu. Virgil. 

Quid vetat irato numen adesse deo ? (9.) Ovid. 

Daphnin ad astra feremus ; amavit nos quoque Daphnis. 

Hion in Tyriam transfer felicius urbem. Ovid. 

Donee eris felix multos numerabis amicos. Id. 

For sit an et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis. Id. 

Aut tondit infirmas oves. (20.) Horace. 

Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vit&. Virgil. 

Virginibus Tyriis rribs est gestare pharetram. Id. 

Siquis erit qui te, quod sis mens esse legendum . . . Ovid. 
. . . Et Libys Amphimedon, avidi committere pugnam. Id. 

Vivitur ex rapto ; non kospes ab hospite tutus. Ovid. 
XJltus es offensas, ut decet, ipse tuas. (9.) Id. 

Queruntur in sylvis aves. (20.) Horace. 

. . . Currus et intactas boves. (20.) Id. 

Vis ut nulla virum, non ipsi excindere-ferro . . . Virgil. 
. . . Cum sis ei prave sectum stomacheris ob unguem. 

Ter vocata audis, adimisque letho. (28.) Id. 

Quamvis increpitent socii, et vi cursus in altum . . . Virg. 
Hie situs est Phaethon, currus auriga paterni. Ovid. 
Fiet enim subito sus horridus atraque tigris. Virgil. 

Nare per cestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen. Id. 

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Si thure placaris et horna . . . (19.) • Horace. 

. . . Sors exitura, et nos in aternwn* (19.) 

Exilium impositura cymbee. (42.) Horace. 

1. Terras | que trac|tusque maris coelumque profundum. 

2. Amphi|on Dir|caBus in | Actae|o Aralcyntho. 

3. Nee sum adeo informis nuper me in littore vidi. 

4. Te Cory don 6 Ajlexi : trahit sua quemque voluptas. 

5. Et longum formose vale vale inquit Ioia. 

6. Tityre pascentes a flumine | reice cajpellas. 

7. Clara Deum Soboles, magnum Jovis | increj men turn. 

8. Cum gravius dorso subijit onus. | Incipit ille. 

9. Pro molli viola pro purpure|o narjeisso. 

10. Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes. 

11. Ter sunt cona|ti im|ponere J relio Ossam. 

12. Glauco, | et Pano|pere et | lno|o Melijcertae. 

13. Insulse | Ionijo in magjno, quas dira Celaeno. 

14 Et spu|mas miscent ar|genti, | vivaque | sulphura — 
Idaeasque pices. 

15. Sed fortuna valens audacem fecerat | Orphea. 

16. Bis patriae cecidere manus. Quin protinus | omnia. 

17. Stant et | junipe|ri & | castanejae hirjsutae. 

1. Que long by Contra, gee p. 73L 

2. In the fifth foot o is not elided. See under Synalaepha, p. 76. 

3. In this verse three elisions. 

4. O is not elided. See under Synalaepha. 

5. The « in the 2d vaie not elided but shortened. See under Synalaepha. 

6. Either to be read refce by Syncope oft; or the./' elided, and then reic* 

contracted into reice by Synseresis, p. 74. 
T. This is a Spondaic Hexftmeter. 

8. it onus — it long by Caesura. 

9. A Spondaic Hexameter. 

10. Fluviorvm to be read as \tftuvjorum, or taken as an Anapaest. 

11. In two rowels of this line Synalaepha not employed. 

12. Do. and a diphthong shortened. 

13. In the first foot a diphthong not elided but shortened. 

14. A at the end is elided by the rowel at the commencement of the next line. 

15. Pronounce the last word Orpfia by Crasis, p. 75. 

16. Omnia made two syllables. 

17. This line a Spondaic, and has two vowels unelided by SynalsBphe. 

* To be read "ater-\\W exilium" 

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Tropi proprii Quatuor. 

Dat propriae similem, translata Metaphora vocem, 1 

Atque Metonymia imponit nova nomina rebus. 2 

Confundit totum cum parte Synecdoche saepe. ' 3 


1. Fluctuat eestu (i*. e. excessu), irarum. Aspirant (i. 
e. favent) cceptis. 2. Inventor pro Invento ; ut Mars (i. 
e. bellum) saevit. Author pro Operibus ; ut, lego Hora- 
Hum, (i. e. ejus scripta.) Instrumentum pro Causa ; ut, 
lingua (i. e. eloquentia) tuetur ilium. Materia pro Facto; 
Mt,ferrum, (i. e. gladius) vicit. Effectusjpro Causa; ut, 
frigida mors, (i. e. quae facit frigidos.) Continens pro 
Contento; ut, vescor dapibus, (i, e. cibis.) Adjuuctum 
pro Subjecto ; ut, fasces, (i. e. magistrates). 3. Decern 
testates, (i. e. annos) vixi sub hoc tecto, (i. e. domo.) 
Nunc annus, (i. e. ver) est formosissimus. 


1. a fi8Tttg)ig(a i transfero. 2. a pnovo/idttu, transnomino. 
3. & <rvv8xdixo(iai, comprehendo. 

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The four proper Tropes. 

A Metaphor, in place of proper words, 1 

Resemblance puts ; and dress to speech affords. 
A Metonymy does new names impose, 2 

And Things for things by near relation shows. 
Synecdoche the Whole for Part does take, 3 

Or Part for Whole ; just for the metre's sake. 


1. He boils with a Tide (i. e. Excess) of Passion. They 
breathe on (i. e. favour) my Enterprises. 2. The In- 
Ventor is taken for the Invented ; as, Mars (i. e. War) 
rages. The Author for his Works ; as, I read Horace, (i. 
e. his Writings.) The Instrument for the Cause ; as, his 
Tongue (i. e. Eloquence) defends him. The matter for 
the Thing made ; as, the Steel (i. e. Sword) conquers. 
The effect for the Cause ; as, cold Death, (i. e. Death 
that makes cold.) The subject containing for the Thing 
contained ; I feed on dainties, (i. e. on food.) The ad- 
junct for the subject; as, the Mace (i. e. Magistrate) 
comes. 3. Ten Summers (i. e. Years) I have lived 
under this Roof, (i. e. House.) Now the Year v (i. e. 
Spring) is the most beautiful. 


1. Translation. 2. Changing of Names. 3. Com- 



Contra quam sentit solet Ironia jocari. 4 

Affectiones Troporum. 

Durior impropriae est Catachresis abusio vocis. 5 

Extenuans, augensve, excedit Hyperbole verum. 6 

Voce Tropos plures nectit Metalepsis in una. 7 

Continuare Tropos AUegoria adsolet usque. 8 

Tropi falso habiti. 
Antonomasia imponit Cognomina sspe. 9 


4. Benl factum, (i. e. male factum.) 5. Vir gregis, 
(i. e. dux gregis.) Minatur, (i. e. promittit) pulchra. 
6. Currit ocior Euro, (i. e. citissime.) 7. Euphrates, (i. e. 
Mesopotamia, i. e. ejus incolae), movet bellum. 8. Venus, 
(i. e. amor) friget sine Cerere, (i. e. pane) & Baecho, (i. 
e. vino.) 9. Hie adest Irus, (i. e. pauper.) JEacides, (i. 
e. Achilles) vicit. Pwnus, (i. e. Hannibal) tulit victoriam. 
Cytherea, (i. e. Venus, Dea insuke Cytherae.) Philoso- 
phis, (i. e. Aristoteles) asserit. Poeta, (i. e. Virgilius) 
canit JEneam. 


4. ab elqweiopcu, dissimulo. 5. a xaxaxQ&oiiai, aba- 
tor. 6. ab tinegP&llot, supero. 7. a fiexa'kafi^&v^ parti- 
$ipo. 8* ab Mtrfo^iw, aliud dice 9. ab d***, pro, & 
hvop&Xfii, no mi no. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


And Irony, dissembling with an air, 4 

Thinks otherwise than what the words declare. 

Affections of Tropes. 

A Catachreris words too far doth strain : 5 

Rather from such abase of speech refrain. 

Hyperbole soars too high or creeps too low : 6 

Exceeds the truth, things wonderful to show. 

By Metalepsis, in one word combined, 7 

More Tropes than one you easily may find. 

An Allegory tropes continues still, 8 

Which with new graces every sentence fill. 

Tropes improperly accounted so. 

Antonomasia proper names imparts 9 

From kindred, country, epithets, or arts. 



4. Fairly done, (i. e. scandalously done.) Good Boy, 
(L e. Bad Boy.) * 5. The Man, (i. e. Chief) of the Flock. 
He threatens, (i. e. promises) a favour. 6. He runs 
swifter than the ufind, (i. e. very swiftly.) 7. Euphrates, 
(i. e. Mesopotamia, i. e. its Inhabitants) moves War. 8. 
Venus grows cold without Ceres and Bacchus, i. e. (Love 
grows cold without Bread and Wine.) 9. There goes 
Jrus, (i. e. a poor Man.) Macides (i. e. Achilles) con- 
quered. The Carthaginian, (i. e. Hannibal) won the 
Field. Cytherea, (i. e. Venus worshipped in the Island 
so called.) The Philosopher, (i. e. Aristotle) asserted so. 
The Poet, (i. e. Virgil) sings of JEneas. 


4. Dissimulation. 5. Abuse. 6. Excess. 7. Partici- 
pation. 8. Speaking otherwise. 9. For a name. 


Si plus quam dicis signes, Litotes vocabis. 10 

A sonitu voces Onbmatop&ia fingit. 11 

Antiphrasis voces tibi per contraria signat. 12 

Dat Charientismus pro duris mollia verba. 13 
Asteismus jocus urbanus, seu scomma facetum est 14 

Est inimica viri Diasyrmus abusio vivi. 16 

Insultans^hosti illudit Sarcasmus amare\ 16 

Si quid proverbi fertur Parosmia dicta est, 17 


10. Non laudo tua munera nee sperno, (i. e. vitupera 
ea tamen accipio). 11. Tinnitus aeris ; rugitus leonum. 
12. Lucus, a luceo, significat opacum nemus. 13. Ad 
bona verba precor : ne saevi, magna Sacerdos. 14. Qui 
Bavium non odit, amet tua carmina Maevi : atque idem 
jungat vulpes, & mulgeat hircos. 15. In strepitu can- 
tas : digna sed argutos interstrepere anser olores. 16. 
Satia te sanguine, Cyre. 17. Lupum auribus teneo. 


10. a Xnbg, tenuis. 11. ab dvotiaionoUw, noraen facio. 
12. ab dj'Tffpd^ctf, per contrarium loquor. 13. a x a Q** r - 
Tt£opai t jocor. 14. ab <St$etog t urbanus. 15. a dia(r6(fn 9 
convitior. 16. a oagx&Qu, irrideo. 17. a nrapotpt^o/Mr*, 
proverbialiter loquor. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Litotes doth more sense than words include, 10 

And often by two negatives hath stood. 
Onomatopceia coins words from sound, 11 

By which alone the meaning may be found.. 
Antiphrasis makes words to disagree 12 

Prom sense ; if rightly they derived be. 
Charientismus, when it speaks, dpth choose 13 

The softer for the harsher words to, use. 
Asteismus loves to jest with strokes of wit, 14 

And slily with the point of satire hit. 
A Diasyrmus must ill nature show, 15 

And ne'er omits t' insult a living foe. 
Sarcasmus with a biting jeer doth kill, 16 

s And every word with strongest venom fill. 
Parosmia by a Proverb tries to teach 17 

A short, instructing, and a nervous speech. 


, 10. I neither jpraise your Gifts, nor despise them, (i. e. 
I dispraise your Gifts, yet I accept them.) 11. The 
tinkling of brass ; the roaring of lions. 12. Lucus, from 
Lux, Light, signifies a dark shady Grove. 13. Be not 
so angry : Heaven send better News. 14. Who hates 
not Bavius, let him love MaBvius , verses ; and he that 
loves either, let him yoke foxes and milk the He-goats. 

15. You cackle like a Goose among the tuneful Swans. 

16. Now Cyrus, glut yourself with Blood. . 17. I know 
not what to do. 


10. Lessening. 11. Feigning a name. 12. Contrary 
Word. 13. Softening. 14. Civility. 15. Detraction. 
16: Bitter Taunt. 17. A Proverb. 

d by Google 

136 AR8 BHETOEICi.. 

Mnigma obscuris tecta est sententia verbis* IB 

/ Figueje Dictionis in eodem Sono. 

Dat variam sensum voci Antanaclasis eidem. 19 

Atque Ploce repetit proprium ; communiter hocce. 20 

Diversis membris frontem dat Anaphora eandem. 21 

Complures clausus concludit Epistrophe eodem. 22 

Symploce eas jungit, complexa utramque figuram. 23 

Incipit et voce exit Eparwlepsis e&dem. 24 

Est Anadiplosis cum quae postrema prions 25 
Vox est, haec membri fit dictio prima sequentis. 


18. Arundo Nilotis, (i. e. Papyrus Nili) profert ./Kioto 
Cad mi, (i. e. Graecas litems inventas ab illo.) 19. Quis 
neget JBneae natum de stirpe Neronem ? Sustulii hie 
matrem, sustulit ille patrem ! 20. In hae victoria Caesar 
erat Ccesar, (i. e. mitissimus victor.) 21. Pax coronat 
vitam : pax profert copiam. 22. Nascimur dohre, degi- 
mus vitam dolore, finim us dolore. 23. Quis legem tulit ? 
Rullus. Quis majorem populi partem suffragiis privavit ? 
Rullus. Qwi* comitiis pnefuit? Idem Rullus. 24. Multa 
super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa. 25. Hie 
tamen vivit : Vivit ? imo vero etiam in senatum venit. 


18 ab alWiTco, obscure loquor. 19. ab dvTayaxiLdw, 
refringo. 20. a nlixw, necto. 21. ab &vaq>i(fw, refero. 
22. ab ImsQiqto, converto. 23. a ffu/U7?X«*w, connecto. 
24. ob&nl, & &raXapP&vu 9 repeto. 25. ab dpadmlfa, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Smigma in dark words the sense conceals ; 18 

But, that once known, a riddling speech reveals. 
Figures of Words of the same sound. 
Antanaclasis in one sound contains 19 

More meanings, which the various sense explains* 
By Ploce one a proper name repeats ; 20 

Yet as a common noun the latter treats. 
Anaphora gives more sentences one head ; 21 

As readily appear to those that read. 
Epistropke more sentences doth close 22 

With the same words, whether in verse or prose. 
Symploce joins these figures both together, 23 

And from both join'd makes up itself another. 
Epanalepsis words doth recommend, 24 

The same at the beginning and the end. 
Anadiplosis ends the former line 25 

With what the next does for its first design. 


18. Nilotis's Quill brought forth the Daughters of 
Cadmus, (i. e. a Pen made of a Reed growing by the side 
of the River Nile wrote the Greek Letters invented by 
Cadmus.) 19. Who can deny that Nero is descended from 
JEneas ? The former took off (i. e. killed) his mother ; 
the latter took off (i. e. affectionately removed from dan- 
ger) his father. 20. In that Victory Caesar was Ccesar, 
(i. e. a most serene Conqueror.) 21. Peace crowns our 
Life ; Peace does our Plenty breed. 22. We are born in 
Sorrow; pass our time in Sorrow ; end our days in Sor- 
row. 23. Who proposed the law ? Ruttus. Who deprived 
the majority of the people of their right of suffrage ? Rullus. 
Who presided at the comitia ? The same identical UuUw . 
24. Many % questions anxiously asking about Priam, about 
Hector, many. 25. And yet this man is permitted to 
live : — to live ? Yea, and even to come into the senate ! 


18. A Riddle* 19. A Reciprocation. 20. Continua- 
tion. 21. Rehearsal. 22. A turning. to. 23. A Com- 
plication. 24. Repetition. -25. Reduplication. 
12* - 


Prima velut mediis, mediis ita Ep&nados ima 96 
Consona dat repetens. Exemplo disce figuram. 

Ejusdem fit Epizeuxis tepetitio vocis. 27 

Continua serie est repetita gradatio Climax. 28 

Estque Polyptoton vario si dictio casu. 29 

Figurje Dictionis similis Soni. 

Fonte ab eodem derivata Paragmenon aptat 30 
Voce parum mutat&, alludit significatum. 

Paranomasia : ut " amentis non gestus amantis." 31 

Fine soqo similes conjungit Homoioteleuton* 32 

Inque Pareckesi repetita est Syllaba vocum. 33 


26. Crudelis tu quoque mater ; crudelis mater magisj 
an puer improbus Ule ? Improbus Ule puer, crudelis tu 
quoque mater. 27. Ah ! Corydon, Corydon* Bella, 
horrida betta. 28. Quod libet, id licet, his ; at quod 
licet, id satis audent ; quodque audent, faciunt ; fachint 
quodcunque molestum est. 29. Arma armis ; pedi pes ; 
virovir. 30. Pieridum studio studiosl teneris. 31. Amentis 
non gestus amantis ; ut supra. 32. Si vis incolumen, si 
vis te reddere sanum, curas tolle graves, irasci crede pro* 
fanum. 33. O fortunatam natam. 


26. ab inl, & foodog, ascensus. 27. ab im&tywpi, 
conjungo. 28. a xllw, acclino. 29. k notig, varius, & 
niwng , casus. 30. k naQdyw, derivo. 31. St na^d, juxta, 
& ^vofia. nomen. 32. ab 6ftotwg % similiter, & tilevio*, 
finitum. 33. k naqrix^, sono similis sum. 

* In translating some of these figures, it is extremely difficult— owing to 
idiomatic phraseology, dissimilarity or sound, Ac., &o.,— to give more than equi- 
valent sense; as in the present example, and man j others farther on. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ART 07 RH1T0RIC; 199 

By Epanados a sentence shifts its place, 26 

Takes first, and last, and also middle space. 

An Epizeuxis twice a word repeats, 27 

Whatever the theme or subject be it treats. 

A Climax by gradation still ascends, 28 

Until the sense with finished period ends. 

A Polyptoton still the same word places, 29 

If sense requires it, in two different cases. 

Figures of Words of like Sound. 

Paragmenon derived from one recites 30 

More words ; and in one sentence them unites. 
Paronomasia to the sense alludes, 31 

When words but little vary'd it includes. 
Homoioteleuton makes the measure chime 32 

With like sounds in the end of fetter'd rhyme. 
A Parackesis syllable sets twice ; 33 

But this, except to poets, is a vice. 


26. Whether the worst ? the ChUd accurst, or else the 
cruel mother? The Mother worst, the ChUd accurst ; 
as bad the one as t'other. 27. Ah ! poor, poor Swain ! 
Wars, horrid wars. 28. Folly breeds Laughter ; Laugh* 
ter, Disdain ; Disdain makes Shame her Daughter. 29. 
Foot to foot ; Hand to Hand ; Face to Face. 30. I write 
friendly of Friendship to a Friend. 31. Friends are 
turned fiends. 32. Chime and Rhyme, as above. 33. 
Liberty begets Mischief chiefly. 


26. A Regression. 27. A joining together. 28. A 
Ladder, Stair. 29. Variation of Case. 30. Derived 
from the same. 31. Likeness of Words. 32. A like 
ending. 33. Allusion. 

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Figure ad Explicationem. 

Exprimit atque oculis quasi subjicit IJypotyposis. 34 
Res, loca, personas, affectus, tempora, gestus* 

Explicat oppositum addens Paradiastole recte. 35 

Opposita Antimetabole mutat dictaque saepe. 36 

Librat in Antithetis contraria Enantiosis. 37 

Synceceiosis duo dat contraria eidem. 38 

Oxymoron " iners erit ars ;" " Concordia discors." 39 

Figure ad Probationem. 

Propositi reddit causas Mtiohgia. 4fr 

Arguit allatam rem contra Inversio pro se. 41 


34* Videbar videre alios intrantes, alios verd exeuntes ; 
quosdam ex vino vacillantes, quasdam hesterna potatione 
oscitantes, &c» 35. Fortuna obumbrat virtutem, tamen 
non obruit eain. 36. Po«ma est pictura loquens, pictura 
est mutum poema. 37. Alba ligustra cadunt, .vaccinia 
nigra leguntur. 38. Tarn quod adest desit quam quod 
non adsit avaro. 39. Superba humilitas. 40. Speroe 
voluptates : nocet empta ddore voluptas. 41. Imd equi- 
dem : neque enim, si occidissem, sepelissem. 


- 34. ab $noivn6to 9 repraesento. 35. it notQafoaqilko, dis- 
jiingo. 36. ab d*Tl, contra, & /tetapdlha, inverto. 37. 
ab 6vavrio$ t oppositus. 38. a ovvoihbm, concilio. 39. 
ab W, acutum* & fKa^v 9 stultum. 40. ab ahtolojit^ 
rationem reddo. 41. ab inver to. * . .-,.....-. 

, y Google 


Fhhtres for Explanation. 

Hypotyposis to the eye contracts 34 

Things, places, persons, affections, acts. 

Paradiastole explains aright 35 

Things in an opposite and difPrent light. 

Antimetabole puis chang'd words again 36 

By contraries ; as the example will explain. 

Enantiosis poiseth different things, 37 

And words and sense as into balance brings. 

Synaceiosis to one subject ties 38 

Two contraries ; and fuller sense supplies. 

In Oxymoron contradictions meet : v 39 

And jarring epithets and subjects greet. 

Figures for Proof. 

JBtiology gives every theme a reason ; 40 

For sure that never can be out of season. 
Inversion makes the adversary's plea 41 

A strong nay best defence that urg'd can be. 


34. The Head is sick ; the Heart is faint ; from the 
sole of the Foot, even unto the Head, there is no sound- 
ness, but Wounds, Bruises, and putrefying sores. 35. 
Virtue may be overshadowed, but not overwhelmed. 36. 
A poem is a speaking Picture ; a Picture is a mute Poem. 
37. Truth brings Foes, Flattery brings Friends. 38. He 
is dead even while he liveth.. 39. Proud humility. This 
bitter sweet. 40. Despise Pleasures, for Pleasure bought 
with pain hurteth. 41. Had I killed him, (as you report,) 
I had not staid to bury him. 


34. A Representation. 35. Discrimination. 36. 
Changing by Contraries. 37. A Contrariety. 38. Re- 
conciling. 39. A witty footfsh saying. 40. Showing a 
Reason. 41. Inversion. 

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132 AKSrWIBTOmiC^. 

Anticipat, qua* quis valet objecisse, Prelepsis. 42 

Plane aut dissimulans permittit Epitrope factum. 43 

Figtteje ad Amplificationem. 

Ad summum ex imo gradibus venit Incrementwm. 44 
Verba Synom/mia addit rem signaniia eandem. 45 

Res specie varias Synathraesmus congerit una. 46 

" Non dico," Apophysis ; " Taceo, mitto," est Parole- 

ipsis. 47 


42. Hie aliquis mihi dicat : cur ego amicum offendam 
in nugis ? hae nugaV seria ducunt in mala. 43. Credo 
equidem : neque te teoeo, nee dicta refello. 44. Justum 
et tenacem propositi virum non civium ardor prava ju- 
bentium, non vultus instantis Tyranni, mente quatit 
solida, neque Auster dux inquieti turbidus Adriae, nee 
fulminantis magna manus Jovis ; si fractus illabatur or- 
bis, impavidum ferient ruinse. 45. Ensis & gladias. 
Vivit & vescitur aetberea aura. 46. Grammaticus, Rbetor, 
Pictor, Aliptes, Augur, Schoenobates, Medicus, Magus : 
omnia novit. 47. Non referam ignaviam & alia magis 
scelesta, quorum pcenitere oportet. 47. Taceo ; mitto 
homicidia, furta, & alia tua crimina. 


42. a nQpXaftfl&iHo, anticipo. 43. ab imtqittm f permitto* 
44. *ab incresco. 45. a <n)v, con, & fro/ia, nomen. 4S^ 
a awudffol^w, congrego. 47. ab d«d, ab* & qpdoi, dico ;— *- 
a naqaUinta, pranermitto. ^ I . 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Prolepsis your objection doth preveat, 42 

With answers suitable and pertinent. 
Epitrope gives leave, and facts permits, 43 

Whether it speaks sincere, or counterfeits. 

Figures for Amplifying. 

An Inerementum by degrees doth rise, 44 

And from a low t' a lofty pitch it flies. 

Synonymy doth divers words prepare, 45 

Vet each of them one meaning doth declare. 

A Synatkrcesmns sums up various things, 46 

And as into one heap together brings. 

Apopkasis, pretending to conceal 47 

The whole it meant to hide, must needs reveal, 

A Paraleipsis cries ; " I leave't behind, 47 

I let it pass ;" tho' you the whole may find. 


<*2. What then? shall we sin, because we are not 
under the Law, but Grace ? God forbid. 43. Go, take 
your Course, I will not stop your Rambles. 44. The 
Wickedness of a Mob, the cruel Force of a Tyrant, 
Storms and Tempests, even Jupiter's Thunder ; nay, if 
the World should fall, it cannot disturb the just Man, nor 
shake his solid Resolution. 45. Freedom and Liberty ; 
He is yet alive ; he breathes sethereal Air. 46. Thief, 
Tailor, Miller, Weaver, &c. 47. I say nothing of your 
Idleness, and other Things, for which you cannot excuse 
yourself. 47. I omit the Bribes you received ; I let pass 
your Thefts, your Robberies, and your other crimes. 


42. Prevention. 43. Permission. 44. Increasing. 
45. Partaking together of a Name. 46. Gathering to- 
gether. 47. Not saying. 47. Leaving. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Rem circumloquitur per plura Periphrasis unam. 48 
Hendiadys fixum dat mobile, sic duo fixa. 49 

Ad Affectuum Concitationem. 

Quark Erotesis, poterat quod dicere recte. 50 

Concilat Ecpkonesis & Exclamatio men tern. 51 

Narrate subit & rei Epiplionema probata. 52 

Est Epanortkosis positi correctio sensus. 53 

Aposiopesis sensa imperfecta relinquit. 54 

Consul tat cum aliis Anaccmosis ubique. 55 

Gonsulit addubitans quid agat dicatve Aporia. 56 


48. Scriptor Trajani belli, (i. e. Homerus.) 49. Bibit 
ex auro & pateris, pro aureis pateris. 50. Creditis avec- 
tos hostes ? aut ulla putatis dona carere dolis Danaum ? 

51. Heu Pietas ! beu prisca fides ! heu vana voluptas ! 

52. Tantae molis erat Roma nam condere genteto. 53*. 
O dementia ! dementia dm ? potius patientia mira. 64. 

Quos ego sed motos prsestat componere fluctus. 65* 

Si ita haberet se tua res quid concilii aut rationis inires? 
56. Quid faciam ? roger, anne rogem ? quid deinde rogabo? 


48. & neQHpQ&tat, circumloquor. 49 ab ev, unum > £*£, 
per, & dva, duo. §0. ab fyoirdai, interrogo. 51. ab £«- 
qutvtiQ), exdamo. 52. ab imqwv&w, acclamo. 53. ab 
4navoQ66w 1 corrigo. 54. ab dwA, post, & aitan6m % obiiceo* 
55. ab dyaxoiPDw, communico. 56. ab fatogiw, addubito. 

Digitized by CjjOOQlC 


Periphrasis of words doth use a train, 48 

Intending one thing only to explain. 
Hendiadys turns to substantives, you'll see, 49 

What adjectives with substantives agree. 


By Erotesis what we know we ask, 50 

Prescribing to ourselves a needless task. 

By Ecp/ionesis straight the mind is raised, 51 

When by a sudden flow of passion seiz'd. 

Epiphonema makes a final clause, 52 

When narratives and proofs afford a cause. 

Epanorthosis doth past words correct, 53 

.And only to enhance seems to reject. 

Aposiopesis leaves imperfect sense ; 54 

Tet such a silent pause speaks eloquence. 

Anaaznosis tries another's mind, 55 

The better counsel of a friend to find. 

Aporia in words and actions doubts, 56 

And with itself what may be best disputes. 


4a The writer of the Trojan War (for HomeT). 49. 
He drinks out of Gold and Cups, for Golden Cups. 50. 
Do you imagine the enemy departed ? Do you believe 
any boons from the Greeks free from wile ? 51. Alas ! Oh 
banished Piety ! Oh corrupted Nation ! 52. Of so great 
Moment was it to raise the Roman Nation. 53. Most 
brave! Brave, said I? Most heroic Act. 54. Whom I — 
but it is better to compose the swelling waves. 55. Were 
it your case, what would you do ? 56. What shall I do ; 
must I be asked, or must I ask ? Then what shall I ask ? 


48. Circumlocution. 49. One in two. 50. A Ques- 
tioning — Interrogation. 51. Exclamation. 52. Acclft- 
r'on. £3. Correcting. 54. A Pausing or Concealing. 
A Communication. 56. A Doubting, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Personam inducit Prosopoptma loquentem. &f 

Sermonem k prcesenti avertit Apostrophe nte. 58 

Schemata Grammatica Orthographle. 

Prosthesis apponit capiti ; sed Aphceresis aufert. 69 

Syncope de medio tollit ; sed Epenthesis addit 60 

Abstrahit Apocope fini ; sed dat Paragoge. 61 


57. Hosne mihi fructus, bunc fertilitas honorem officii- 
que refers ? (Tell as fingitur loqui.) 58. Et auro vi poti- 
tur. Quid non mortal ia pectora cogis, auri sacra femes? 
59. Onatus, pro natus ; non tern n ere, pro non conteoa- 
nere Divos. 60. Surrexe, pro surrexisse ; — Mavors, pro 
Mars. 61. Ingeni, pro ingenii ; — vestirier, pro vestiri. 


57. & notoemor, persona, & noiiu, facio. 58. ab <bros- 
qiq»t, vetto. 59. & tr^os/fl^u*, appono ; — ab dgxu?**, aufero* 
60. a otr, con, & ndmw, scindo ; — ab M, in, & ivUOqtii, 
infero. 61. ab dn A , ab, & *6mu f scindo ;— i nuoA % pro- 
ter, & &ya>, duco. — 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Prosopopeia a new person feigns, * 57 

And to inanimates speech and reason deigns. 
Apostrophe for greater themes or less 58 

Doth turn aside, to make a short address. 

Figures of Orthography. 

Prosthesis to the front of words doth add 69 

Letters or syllables they never had. 

Aphceresis from the beginning takes 59 

What syllable or letter the word up-makes. 

Syncope leaves the middle syllable out, 60 

Which causes oft of case and tense to doubt. 

Epenthesis to middle adds one more 60 

Than what the word could justly claim before. 

Apocope cuts off a final letter, 61 

Or syllable, to make the verse run better. 

A Paragoge adds unto the end, 61 

Yet not the sense, but measure to amend. 


57. The very Stones of the Street speak your Wicked- 
ness. The Mountains clap their Hands, and the Hills 
sing for Joy. 58. Thus he possessed the gold by Vio- 
lence. Oh! cursed Thirst of Gold, what wickedness 
dost thou not influence men's minds to perpetrate ? 59. 
'Yclad in Armour, for clad ; begirt for girt with a Sword. 
59. TWXJbr until. 60. Ne'er for never; o'er for over; — 
Blackamoor for Blackmoor. 61. Tho' for though ; — 
Chicken for Chick. 


57. Feigning a Person — Personification. 58. An Ad- 
dress, or turning away from the principal Subject. 59. 
Adding to. 59. Taking from. 60. Cutting out; — Interpo- 
sition. 61. A cutting off; — Producing, or making longer. 

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W8 jma *wtoriga* 

Metathesis sedem coranwtat Literoktrum. 42 

Literulam Antithesis ipeam mutate paratur. . 63 

Syntaxeos in Excesstt. • 

Vocibus exsuperat Plecmasijws & erophasin auget. 64 

Conjunctura frequens vocum Polysyndeton esto. 65 

Mem brum interjecto sermone Parenthesis auget. 66 

Syllabicum adjectum sit vocis fine Parolee. 67 

In Defect?. 

Dicitur Elleipsis si ad sensum dictio desit 6§ 

Unius verbi ad diversa reductio Zeugma. 69 


62. Thymbre, pro Thyrober. 63. Olli, pro iUi ; vol- 
gus, pro vulgus. 64. Audivi auribus ; vidi oculis. 65. 
Fata.que* fortunasque viriim, moresque, manusque. 66. 
Credo equidem (nee vana fides) genus esse Deorum. 67. 
Numnara, pro num : adesdum, pro ades. 68. Non eft 
solve ndo, supple aptus; Dicunt, supple, illi. 69. N«c 
folium, nee arundo agitatur vento, (i. e. nee folium agita- 
tor, nee arundo agitatur vento.) 


1 62. k (istb, trans, & t/%u pono. 63. ab dvxi, contra, 
& rltiijui, pono. 64. k nXeovbtpi, redundo. 65. k nol$ 9 
multum, & ovvdiw, colligo. 66. a naosvjid/ifit, interjicio. 
67. a na^kxoj, protraho. 68. ab tlkslnv, pretermit*). 
69. k tsvfvtfu, jungo. . > otS 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Metathesis a letter's pbce doth change, 62 

So that the word appear not new or strange. 
Antithesis doth change the very letter ; 63 

A vowel for vowel as authors think it better. 

FiGtJRES of Excess in Syntax. 

A Pleonasmus hath more words than needs, 64 

And, to augment the emphasis, exceeds. 

In Polysyndeton conjunctions flow, 65 

And eVry word its cop'lative must show. 

Parenthesis is independent sense, 66 

Clos'd in. a sentence () by this double fence. 

Parolee particles to words apply, 67 

Yet add no more to what they signify. 

Figures of Defect in Syntax. 

EUeipsis drops a word to shorten speech, 68 

And oft a sentence too V omit doth teach. 
Zeugma repeats the verb as often o'er 69 

As construing words come after as before. 


62. Cruds for Curds. 63. Tye for tie ; furnisht for 
furnished ; exprest for expressed. 64. With my ears I 
heard it; I saw it with mine Eyes. 65. Fear and Joy 
and Hatred and Love seized the Mind by Turns. 66. I 
believe indeed (nor is my Faith vain) that he is the Off- 
spring of the Gods. 67. He evermore for ever feeds. 
68. True, for it is true. 69. Nor Leaf nor Reed is stir- 
red by the Wind, (i. e. nor Leaf is stirred nor Reed is 
stirred by the Wind.) 


62. Transposition. 63. Opposition* 64. Superfluity. 
65k Many Copulatives. 66. Interposition of Words* 67. 
Prolonging* fl& As Omission* 6& A, Joining. 

ie # 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

149 las mromiCA* 

Personam, genus, et nameram concentre triplex 
Accipit indignom, Syllepsis sub i»ag& digno. 70 

Dialyton, tollit juncturam & Asyndeton &qu£. 71 

In Context?. 

Est vocum inter se turbatus Hyperbaton ordo. 72 

Quod meruit primum vult Hysteron esse secundum. 73 

Casu transposito submutat Hypallage verba. 74 

Hel/enismus erit phrasis aut constructio GrsBca. * 75 

Voce interposita per Tmesin verbula scindas. 76 

Jungit Hyphen voces, nectitque ligamine in unam. 77 


70. Ego, tu, & frater, (i. e. nos) legimus* &c. 71. 
Rex, miles, plebs, negat illud. 72. Vina, bonus quae 
deinde cadis onerarat Acestes littore Trinacrio, dederat- 
que abeuntibus, heros dividit. 73. Nutrit peperitque. 74* 
Necdum illis labra admovi, pro necdum ilia la br is admovi. 
75. Desine clamorum. 76. Quae mihi cunque placenUpr* 
quseounque mibi piacent. 77. Semper-virentis Hymetti. 


70. & avlXafi(l(iv&, comprebendo. 71. a dtakfa, dis- 
solvo ; — ab a, non, & ov»Sim, connecto. 72. ab inp^al^m, 
transgredior. 73. ab $ssqoi>, posterius. 74. ab tin6 t tub, 
•& dUAiTw, muto. 75. ab *tt?wto», Gracfc lcquor. 76* 1 
tiuvtti, wel T/*doi, eeco, scindo. 77. ab &f>\ sub, &£"» ttattS. 

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Syllepsis, in mote wortky, compmhends 70 

The less ; and former's preference defends. 
Asyndeton, or, (which the same implies,) 71 

Dzalyton, the cop'Jative denies. 

In the Context. 

Hyperbaton makes words and sense to run 72 

In order that's disturbed ; such rather shun. 

Hysteron doth misplace both words and sense, 73 

And maketh last, what's first by just pretence. 

Hypallages from case to case transpose ; 74 

A liberty that's never us'd in prose. 

Tis Hellenismus when we speak or write 75 

In the like style and phrase the Greeks indite. 

By Tmesis words divided oft are seen, 76 

And others 'twixt the parts do intervene. 

Hyphen does words to one another tie, 77 

With such a dash as this (-) to know it by. 


70. I and my Brother, (i. e. we) go out to play. 71. 
Faith, Justice, Truth, Religion, Mercy dies. 72. Wealth, 
which the old Man had rak'd and scrap'd together, now 
the boy doth game and drink away ; (for now the boy 
doth game and drink away Wealth, which the old Man 
had rak'd and scrap'd together.) 73. He was bred and 
born, for born and bred at London. 74. Cups, to which 
I never mov'd my hips, for Cups which I never mov'd 
to my Lips. 75. I kept him from to die, (i. e. from 
Death.) 76. What crime soever, for whatsoever crime. 
77. Purple-coloured. 


70. Comprehension. 71. Disjoined, or without a 
Copulative. 72. A passing over. 73. Placing after. 
-74,; A Changing. . 75. A Gracism, or Greek Phraa*. 
3&d?ividiog> 77. Uniting. • / 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Personam, numeram, commutat Enrfhgt, tempus 78 
Cumque modo, genus et pariter. Sic saepe videbis. 

Antimeria solet vice partis ponere .partem. 79 

Digna praeire solet postponere Anastrophe verba. 80 

*Tertia person© alterius quandoque reperta est 81 

Synthesis est sensu, tantum non congrua voce. 82 

Et casu substantival apponuntur eodera. 83 

)tosis amat pro casu ponere casum. 84 


M necat Ecthlipsis; seel vocalem Synalcepha. 85 


78. Ni faciat, pro faceret, &c. 79. Sole recente, pro 
recenter orto. 80. Italiam contra, pro contra Italiam. 
81. *Evocatio. Populus superamur ab illo : ego pracep- 
tor doceo. 82. Turba ruunt ; pars maxima cesi. 83. 
iAppositio. Mons Taurus, Urbs Athens. 84. Urbe*$i, 
(pro urbs,) quam statuo, vestra est. 85. Si vit' inspkias, 
pro si vitam inspicias : Si vis anirn' esse beatus, pm~*i 
vis animo esse beatus ; viv' hodie, pro vive hodie* 



78. ab JyaUfarai, permuto. 79. ab <*vt1, pro, & f*£oos t 
pars. 80. ab dwee Ipu, retrd verto. 81. ab evoco. 82. 
a avvTiBijpi, compono. 83. a nQo&dtjfii, appono. 84. ab 
,d»Ti, pro, •& m&aig , casus. 85. ab i*dM?u>, elido i~*a. 
ovvaUt^, conglutino* * .^\ 


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Enallages change person, number, tense, 78 

Gender and mood, on any slight pretence. 

By Antimeria for one part of speech 79 

Another's put, which equal sense doth teach. 

Anastrophe makes words that first should go 80 

Tlie last in place ; verse oft will have it so. 

By Evocation we the third recall 81 

In first or second person's place to fall. 

A Synthesis not words but sense respects ; 82 

For whose sake oft it strictest rules rejects. 

By Apposition substantives agree 83 

In case ; yet numbers different may be. 

By Antiptosis you may freely place 84 

One, if as proper, for another case. 

Figures of Prosody. 

Ecthlipsis M in th' end hath useless fix'd, 85 

When vowel or H begins the word that's next. 


78. Alexander fights, for Alexander fought, &c. 79. 
He is new, for newly come Home. 80. He^travell'd 
England through, for through England. 81. We the 
people are subject. 82. The Multitude rushes, or rush 
upon me. 83. Mount Taurus. The City Athens. 84. 
The City which I mean is yours, for the City is yours, 
which I mean. 85. Peculiar to the Latins ; as, si vit' 
inspiciasj./or si vitam inspicias. 


78. A Change of Order. 79. One part for another. 
80. Inventing. 81. Calling forth. 82. A Composition. 
83. Nouns put in the same Case. 84. A Case put for a 
case. 85. A Striking out 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Systole ducta rapit : correpta Diastole dttcit 86 

Syllaba de binis con fee ta Synceresis esto. 87 

Dividit in binas partita Diaresis unam. 88 


86. StetSrunt, pro steterunt ; naufragia, pro naufrftgia. 
87. Alveo— dissyllabum, pro Alveo— trissyllabo* 88. 
Evoluisset, pro Evolvisset. 


86. a <rv$ilXu $ contraho ; — a 8wqilh», produco. 87. 
a avrelpa, contraho. 88. a Swoto, divido. 


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By SyndUepha final vowels give way, 85 

That those in front of following words may stay. 

A Systole long syllables make short : 86 

The cramp'd and puzzled poet's last resort. 

Diastole short syllables prolongs, 86 

But this, to right the verse the accent wrongs. 

Synceresis, whenever it indites, 87 

Still into one, two syllables unites. 

Diaresis one into two divides ; 88 

By which the smoother measure gently glides. 


85. Si vis anim' esse beatus, for si vis animo esse 
beatus. 86. Steterunt^r steterunt 86. Naufragia^or 
Naufr&gia. 87. Alveo, a dissyllable,^- Alveo, a Trissyl- 
■ lable. 88. Evoluisset a /br Evolvisset. 


85. A mingling together. 86. A Shortening. 86. 
Lengthening. 87. A Contraction. 88. A Division. 


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